எசுப்பானியாவிலுள்ள உலகப் பாரம்பரியக் களங்கள்

கட்டற்ற கலைக்களஞ்சியமான விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் இருந்து.
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எசுப்பானியாவின் ஆய்நிலைப் பட்டியலிலுள்ள Loarre அரண்மனை

யுனெஸ்கோவினால் நிர்வகிக்கப்படும் உலக பாரம்பரியக் களங்களில் இரண்டாவது மிக அதிகமான களங்கள் காணப்படுவது எசுப்பானியாவிலாகும். இங்கே 44 உலக பாரம்பரியக் களங்கள் உள்ளன[1]. இதனால் இது உலக பாரம்பரியக் களங்களின் பட்டியலில் இரண்டாவது இடத்தில் உள்ளது. இவற்றில் 39 பண்பாட்டுக் களங்களும், 3 இயற்கைக் களங்களும், 2 கலப்பும் இருக்கின்றன[2]. 1972 இல் உலக பாரம்பரியக் களத்தை உருவாக்குவதற்காக உருவாக்கப்பட்ட சாசனத்தை எசுப்பானியா மே 4, 1982 இல் ஏற்றுக் கொண்டு கையெழுத்திட்டு, தமது நாட்டிலுள்ள வரலாற்று முக்கியத்துவம் நிறைந்த அவ்வாறான களங்களை அடையாளம் கண்டு பட்டியலை உருவாக்கியது.[3]

களங்களின் பட்டியல்[தொகு]

பெயர் படம் அமைந்துள்ள இடம் சமூகம் காலம் யுனெஸ்கோ தரவு விவரிப்பு சுட்டெண்(கள்)
அல்டாமிராக் குகையும் வட எசுப்பானியாவின் பழைய கற்காலக் குகை ஓவியமும் Altamira-1880.jpg சண்டில்லன தெல் மார் காந்தாபிரியா Upper Paleolithic 310; 1985, 2008 (extended); i, iii The Cave of Altamira contains examples of குகை ஓவியம் from the Upper Paleolithic period, ranging from 35,000 to 11,000 BC. The original listing contained seventeen decorated caves. The caves are well-preserved because of their deep isolation from the external climate. [4]
Old Town of Segovia and its Aqueduct Aqueduct of Segovia Segovia Castile and León 1st to 16th centuries 311; 1985; i, iii, iv The Roman aqueduct was constructed in the 1st century, the medieval Alcázar palace in the 11th century, and the cathedral in the 16th. [5]
Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias Santa Maria del Naranco ஒவியேதோ ஆதூரியா 9th century 312; 1985, 1998 (extended); i, ii, iv The Kingdom of Asturias remained the only Christian region of Spain in the 9th century. It developed its own style of Pre-Romanesque art and architecture that is displayed in various churches and other monuments. The original entry titled "Churches of the Kingdom of the Asturias" and was extended to include other monuments such as La Foncalada. [6]
Historic Centre of Córdoba Mosque of Cordoba Córdoba Andalusia 7th to 13th centuries 313; 1984, 1994 (extended); i, ii, iii, iv The original listing was the கோர்தோபா பள்ளிவாசல் - தேவாலயம், a 7th-century mosque converted to a கத்தோலிக்க திருச்சபை cathedral in 13th century by Ferdinand III. During the high period of the Moorish rule of the region, Córdoba had over 300 mosques and architecture that compared to that of Constantinople, திமிஷ்கு, and பக்தாத். [7]
அல்கம்பிரா, Generalife and Albayzín Alhambra கிரனாதா Andalusia 14th century 314; 1984, 1994 (extended); i, iii, iv The three sites are remnants of the Moorish influence in southern Spain. The fortress Alhambra and the palace Generalife were built by the rulers of the Emirate of Granada. The Albayzín district contains examples of the Moorish vernacular architecture and was added to the listing in 1994. [8]
பேர்கோஸ் பெருங்கோவில் Burgos Cathedral Burgos Castile and León 13th to 16th centuries 316; 1984; ii, iv, vi The Gothic-style cathedral was constructed between the 13th and 16th centuries. It is the burial place of Spanish national hero, El Cid. [9]
Monastery and Site of the Escorial El Escorial San Lorenzo de El Escorial Madrid 16th century 318; 1984; i, ii, vi El Escorial is one of several Spanish royal sites due to its history as a residence of the royal family. The palace was designed by King Philip II and architect Juan Bautista de Toledo to serve as a monument to Spain's central role in the Christian world. [10]
Works of Antoni Gaudí Casa Milà பார்செலோனா காத்தலோனியா 19th and 20th centuries 320; 1984, 2005 (extended); i, ii, iv The architecture of Antoni Gaudí is part of the Modernist style, but his designs are described as highly unique. The original listing featured Park Güell, Palau Güell, and Casa Milà; the 2005 extension added Casa Vicens, the crypt and nativity façade of திருக்குடும்பப் பரிகாரப் பேராலயம், எசுப்பானியா, Casa Batlló, and the crypt at Colònia Güell. [11]
Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela சாந்தியாகோ தே கோம்போசுதேலா Galicia 10th and 11th centuries 347; 1985; i, ii, vi The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the reputed burial-place of the apostle James, and is the terminus of the Way of St. James, a pilgrimage across northern Spain. The town was destroyed by Muslims in the 10th century and rebuilt during the following century. [12]
Old Town of Ávila with its Extra-Muros Churches City wall of Ávila Ávila Castile and León 11th century 348; 1985, 2007 (modified); iii, iv The சுவர் surrounding the original town was constructed in the 11th century. It features 82 semicircular towers and 9 gates, and is one of the most complete examples of town walls in Spain. [13]
Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon Cathedral of Teruel Provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza அரகொன் 12th to 17th centuries 378; 1986, 2001 (extended); iv The original listing contained four churches in Teruel in the Mudéjar style, a blending of traditional Islamic and contemporary European styles. In 2001, the listing was expanded to include an additional six monuments. [14]
Historic City of Toledo Toledo Toledo Castile-La Mancha 8th to 16th centuries 379; 1986; i, ii, iii, iv Toledo was founded by the Romans, served as the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom, was important in Muslim Spain and during the Reconquista, and briefly served as the capital of Spain. The city combines Christian, Muslim, and Jewish influences. [15]
கரஜனோய் தேசியப் பூங்கா La Gomera கேனரி தீவுகள் N/A 380; 1986; vii, ix The park is 70% covered by laurisilva or laurel forest, vegetation from the Tertiary period that disappeared from mainland Europe due to climate change, but had covered much of the southern continent. [16]
Old City of Salamanca Cathedral of Salamanca Salamanca Castile and León 13th to 16th centuries 381; 1988; i, ii, iv Salamanca is important as a university city, as the University of Salamanca, founded in 1218, is the oldest in Spain and among the oldest in Europe. The city was first conquered by the Carthaginians in the 3rd century, and later ruled by the Romans and Moors. The city centre represents Romanesque, Gothic, Moorish, Renaissance, and பரோக் கட்டிடக்கலை. [17][18]
Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville Cathedral and Archivo de Indias of Seville செவீயா Andalusia 13th to 16th centuries 383; 1987; i, ii, iii, iv The Alcázar was built during the Almohad dynasty that ruled southern Spain until the Reconquista. The cathedral dates to the 15th century and holds the tombs of Ferdinand III and கொலம்பசு. The Archivo (Archive) houses documents relating to the colonization of the Americas. [19]
Old Town of Cáceres Cáceres Cáceres Extremadura 3rd to 15th centuries 384; 1986; iii, iv The old town combines Roman, Islamic, Northern Gothic, and Italian Renaissance architectural influences, including more than 30 Islamic towers. [20][21]
Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture Ibiza இபிசா பலேரிக் தீவுகள் N/A 417; 1999; ii, iii, iv, ix, x The coast of Ibiza is home to posidonia oceanica, a seagrass only found in the Mediterranean that supports a diverse coastal and marine ecosystem. The island also contains numerous Phoenician ruins, and the fortified and walled older portions of the city date to the 16th century. [22]
போப்லெட் மடாலயம் Poblet Monastery Vimbodí காத்தலோனியா 12th and 13th centuries 518; 1991; i, iv The monastery was founded by the Cistercians in 1151 and is one of the largest in Spain. It is associated with various royal families in medieval Spain, particularly the kings of Aragon. It is the burial place of Aragon monarchs Alfonso II, John I, John II, James I, Ferdinana I, and Peter IV. [23][24]
Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza Cathedral of Baeza Province of Jaén Andalusia 16th century 522; 2003; ii, iv Renovations of the two towns in the 16th century were done under the emerging Renaissance style and are among the first examples of the style in Spain. [25]
Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida Roman theatre of Mérida Mérida Extremadura 1st to 5th centuries 664; 1993; iii, iv Mérida was founded in 25 BC by the Romans as Emerita Augusta and was the capital of the Lusitania province. Remains from the Roman era include a bridge, aqueduct, amphitheatre, theatre, circus, and forum. [26]
Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe Santa María de Guadalupe Guadalupe Extremadura 13th to 16th centuries 665; 1993; iv, vi The monastery is home of Our Lady of Guadalupe, a shrine to Mary found in the 13th century after being buried from Muslim invaders in 714. The Virgin of Guadalupe and the monastery served as important symbols during the Reconquista, culminating in 1492, the same year as Columbus' discovery of America. The Guadalupe Virgin became an important symbol during the evangelization of America. [27][28]
Route of Santiago de Compostela Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela அரகொன், Castile and León, Galicia, Navarre, and La Rioja N/A 669; 1993; ii, iv, vi The Route, or the Way of St. James, is a pilgrimage from the French-Spanish border to the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, where the apostle James is believed to be buried. [29]
Doñana National Park Doñana National Park Provinces of Huelva and Seville Andalusia N/A 685; 1994, 2005 (extended); vii, ix, x The park consists of the delta region where the Guadalquivir River reaches the அத்திலாந்திக்குப் பெருங்கடல். It is home to a diverse variety of biotopes, such as கடற்காயல்s, marshlands, dunes, and maquis. The park is one of the largest heronries in the Mediterranean region and holds more than 500,000 water fowl during the winter period. [30]
Pyrénées – Mont Perdu Ordesa Valley அரகொன் (shared with பிரான்சு) N/A 773; 1997, 1999 (extended); iii, iv, v, vii, viii The site contains the பிரனீசு மலைத்தொடர் mountain chain along the French-Spanish border. The Spanish portion contains two of the largest canyons in Europe, while the French side contains three large cirque walls [31]
Historic Walled Town of Cuenca Cuenca Cuenca Castile-La Mancha 12th to 18th centuries 781; 1996; ii, v The Moors built the fortified city in the early 8th century, and it was captured by the Christians in the 12th century. The cathedral is the first Gothic example in Spain. The town is also famous for its casas colgadas, houses that hang over the edge of a cliff. [32][33]
La Lonja de la Seda de Valencia La Lonja Valencia Valencia 15th and 16th centuries 782; 1996; i, iv La Lonja (or Llotja in Valencian language) de la Seda means Silk Exchange in English, and the group of Gothic buildings demonstrate the wealth of Valencia as an important Mediterranean and European mercantile city in the period. [34][35]
Las Médulas Las Médulas Ponferrada Castile and León 1st to 3rd centuries 803; 1997; i, ii, iii, iv The Romans established a gold mine and worked the site for two centuries. They used an early form of hydraulic mining and cut aqueducts in the rock cliffs to provide water for the operations. The Romans left in the early 3rd century, leaving sheer cliff faces and mining infrastructure that is intact today. [36][37]
Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona Hospital de Sant Pau பார்செலோனா காத்தலோனியா 20th century 804; 1997; i, ii, iv Both buildings were constructed in the early 20th century and designed by Lluís Domènech i Montaner in the modernist ஆர்ட் நூவோ movement that was very popular in Barcelona in that period. The two buildings are Montaner's most famous works. [38]
San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries San Millán Yuso San Millán de la Cogolla La Rioja 6th to 16th centuries 805; 1997; ii, iv, vi The original Suso monastery was founded in the mid-6th century, and is the location where the Glosas Emilianenses were written. The codixes are considered the first written examples of the Spanish and Basque languages, and the monastery is considered the birthplace of written and spoken Spanish. The newer Yuso monastery was built in the 16th century. [39]
Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde Rock art in Côa Castile and León (shared with போர்த்துகல்) Palaeolithic 866; 1998, 2010 (extended); i, iii The original 1998 listing contained examples of Upper Palaeolithic rock art in the Côa Valley of Portugal. In 2010 it was extended to include 645 engravings in the archaeological zone of Siega Verde in Spain. The two sites represent the most well-preserved collection of open-air Palaolithic art in the Iberian peninsula. [40]
Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula Deer painting in cave Andalusia, அரகொன், Castile-La Mancha, காத்தலோனியா, Murcia, and Valencia Prehistoric 874; 1998; iii The site includes over 750 examples of பாறை ஓவியம் from the late prehistoric period, which feature images ranging from geometric shapes to scenes of men hunting animals. [41][42]
Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco Aqueduct of Tárraco தாராகோணம் காத்தலோனியா 1st to 4th centuries 875; 2000; ii, iii The prominent Roman city of Tárraco at the site of modern-day Tarragona served as the capital of the provinces of Hispania Citerior and later Hispania Tarraconensis. The amphitheatre was constructed in the 2nd century. Most remains are only fragments or preserved under more modern buildings. [43][44]
University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares University of Alcalá அல்காலா டி எனேரசு Madrid 16th century 876; 1998; ii, iv, vi Cardinal Cisneros founded the University of Alcalá in 1499 and is the first example of the planned university city, serving as a model to other European universities and Spanish missionaries in America. The city is the birthplace of மிகெல் தே செர்வாந்தேஸ், known for his contributions to the Spanish language and Western literature [45][46]
San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna San Cristóbal de La Laguna கேனரி தீவுகள் 16th to 18th centuries 929; 1999; ii, iv The city has an original and unplanned Upper Town, and "city-territory" Lower Town. It was Spain's first non-fortified colonial town and served as a model for development in America. Many religious-function buildings and other public and private buildings date to the 16th century. [47][48]
Palmeral of Elche Elche Elche Valencia N/A 930; 2000; ii, v The grove of date palm trees was formally laid out with irrigation systems under the Moors in the 10th century. The palmeral is a rare example of Arab agricultural practices in Europe. [49]
Roman Walls of Lugo Walls of Lugo லுகோ Galicia 3rd century 987; 2000; iv The walls built to protect the Roman town of Lucus in the 3rd century remain entirely intact and are the best remaining example in Western Europe. [50]
Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí Taüll – Sant Climent Vall de Boí காத்தலோனியா 11th to 14th centuries 988; 2000; ii, iv The small valley at the edge of the பிரனீசு மலைத்தொடர் contains churches in Romanesque style decorated with Romanesque murals, statues, and altars. The churches are unique for their tall, square bell towers. [51][52]
Archaeological Site of Atapuerca Atapuerca Atapuerca Castile and León Prehistoric 989; 2000; iii, v The caves in the Atapuerca Mountains contain fossil remains of the earliest human beings discovered in Europe dating from nearly one million years ago. The Sima de los Huesos or "Pit of Bones" contains the world's largest collection of hominid fossils. [53][54]
Aranjuez Cultural Landscape Palace at Aranjuez Aranjuez Madrid 15th to 19th centuries 1044; 2001; ii, iv The landscape around the அரன்சுவேசு அரண்மனை was developed by the Spanish royal family over a course of three centuries and contains innovative horticultural and design ideas. The area was the exclusive property of the royal family until the 19th century when the modern civilian city developed. [55][56]
விஸ்காயா பாலம் Vizcaya Bridge Portugalete Basque Country 19th century 1217; 2006; i, ii The bridge was designed by Alberto Palacio to cross the Nervion without disrupting maritime traffic to the Port of Bilbao. It was built in 1893 and is the world's first transporter bridge. [57][58]
டெயிட் தேசியப் பூங்கா Mount Teide Tenerife கேனரி தீவுகள் N/A 1258; 2007; vii, viii The park contains Mount Teide, a volcano and the highest elevation in Spain. [59]
ஹெர்குலஸ் கோபுரம் Tower of Hercules A Coruña Galicia 1st century 1312; 2009; iii The Romans built this 55 மீட்டர்கள் (180 ft) கலங்கரை விளக்கம் on a 57 மீட்டர்கள் (187 ft) rock to mark the entrance to the A Coruña harbor. It is the only fully preserved and functioning Roman lighthouse. [60]
Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana Serra de Tramuntana மயோர்க்கா பலேரிக் தீவுகள் N/A 1371; 2011; ii, iv, v The cultural landscape of Serra de Tramuntana on the north western coast of Majorca has been transformed by a millennia of agriculture involving water management devices such as agricultural terraces, interconnected water works -including water mills – and dry stone constructions and farms. This landscape revolves around farming units of feudal origins. [61]
Heritage of Mercury. Almadén and Idrija N/A Almadén Castile-La Mancha(shared with சுலோவீனியா) 16 and 17th century 1313; 2012; ii, iv Almaden is an ancient mercury mining town with buildings relating to its mining history, including Retamar Castle, religious buildings and traditional dwellings. [62]

தன்னாட்சிக் குழுமங்களின் ரீதியாக பாரம்பரியக் களங்கள்[தொகு]

குழுமம் பிரத்தியேகட்த் தளங்கள் பகிரப்பட்ட தளங்கள்
கஸ்டிலே மற்றும் லியோன் 6 2
ஆந்தலூசியா 5 2
காத்தலோனியா 5 1
Galicia 4 1
கேனரி தீவுகள் 3
எக்சுரேமடூரா 3
மத்ரித் 3
கஸ்டிலே லா- மஞ்சா 2 2
வலென்சியா 2 1
அரகொன் 1 2
லா ரியோஜா 1 1
ஆதூரியா 1
Basque Country 1
பலேரிக் தீவுகள் 2
காந்தாபிரியா 1
முரீகா 1
நவர்ரே 1

மேற்கோள்கள்[தொகு]

  1. "Number of World Heritage properties inscribed by each State Party". ஐக்கிய நாடுகள் கல்வி, அறிவியல், பண்பாட்டு நிறுவனம். பார்த்த நாள் 2012-10-01.
  2. "Spain – Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் 2012-10-01.
  3. States Parties: Ratification Status, World Heritage Convention, UNESCO
  4. "Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  5. "Old Town Segovia and its Aqueduct". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  6. "Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  7. "Historic Centre of Cordoba". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  8. "Alhambra, Generalife, and Albayzin". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  9. "Burgos Cathedral". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  10. "Monastery and Site of the Escorial". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  11. "Works of Antoni Gaudi". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  12. "Santiago de Compostela (Old Town)". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  13. "Old Town of Avila with its Extra-Muros Churches". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  14. "Mudejar Architecture of Aragaon". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  15. "Historic City of Toledo". UNESCO (September 15, 2010).
  16. "Garajonay National Park". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  17. "Old City of Salamanca". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  18. "Importancia Historica" (Spanish). Salamanca Patrimonio. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  19. "Cathedral, Alcazar, and Archivo de Indias in Sevilla". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  20. "Old Town of Cáceres". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  21. "Introducción" (Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Cáceres. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  22. "Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  23. "Poblet Monastery". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  24. "World Heritage List, No. 518 Rev." (pdf). UNESCO (January 3, 1989). பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  25. "Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of Ubeda and Baeza". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  26. "Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  27. "Royal Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  28. "Guadalupe" (pdf). UNESCO (September 25, 1992). பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  29. "Route of Santiago de Compostela". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  30. "Doñana National Park". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  31. "Pyrenees – Mont Perdu". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  32. "Historic Walled Town of Cuenca". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  33. Cook, William. "A stroll through La Mancha". The Guardian. பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  34. "La Lonja de la Seda de Valencia". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  35. "La lonja de Valencia. Limpieza y conversación de fachadas" (Spanish). Colegio Territorial de Arquitectos de Valencia (2005). பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  36. "Las Médulas". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  37. "The archaeology of a mining landscape". Fundación Las Médulas (2003). பார்த்த நாள் September 16, 2010.
  38. "Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  39. "San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  40. "Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  41. "Rock Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  42. "Arte Rupestre del Arco Mediterráneo Peninsular". Instituto de Turismo de España. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  43. "Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  44. "Patrimoni Històric" (Catalan). Ajuntament de Tarragona. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  45. "University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  46. "Alcalá de Henares". Ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad de España. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  47. "San Cristóbal de La Laguna". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  48. "Historia" (Spanish). Ayuntamiento de La Laguna. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  49. "Palmeral of Elche". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  50. "Roman Walls of Lugo". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  51. "Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  52. "El conjunt romànic de la Vall de Boí" (Catalan). Patronat de la Vall de Boí. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  53. "Archaeological Site of Atapuerca". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  54. "Sima de los Huesos: The Pit of Bones". American Museum of National History. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  55. "Aranjuez Cultural Landscape". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  56. "Aranjuez (Spain)". UNESCO (June 30, 2000). பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  57. "Vizcaya Bridge". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  58. "History of the Bridge". Puente Vizcaya World Heritage. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  59. "Teide National Park". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 17, 2010.
  60. "Tower of Hercules". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் September 15, 2010.
  61. "Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் July 23, 2012.
  62. "Heritage of Mercury. Almadén and Idrija". UNESCO. பார்த்த நாள் July 23, 2012.

வெளி இணைப்புக்கள்[தொகு]

(எசுப்பானிய மொழி) Comisión Nacional Española de Cooperación con la UNESCO