ஒலிக்கோப்பு வடிவம்

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ஒலிக்கோப்பு வடிவம் (Audio file format) என்பது எண்ணிம ஒலிக்கோப்புத் தரவுகளை, கணினிக் கட்டகத்தில் சேமித்து வைக்கப் பயன்படும் கோப்புவடிவம் ஆகும். இவ்விதம் சேமிக்கும் போது, ஒலித்தரவு சுருக்கப்படுகிறது. மீண்டும் பயன்படுத்தும் போது, அது விரிக்கப்படுகிறது. ஏனெனில், இப்படி வடிவ மாறுதல்கள் செய்யும் போது, அதனை சேமித்து வைக்கும் தேக்ககத் திறன் அதிகமாகும். பெரும்பாலும், இவ்வகையில் ஒலிக்கோப்பானது, எண்ணிமக்கலன் வடிவம் பெறுகிறது.

வடிவங்கள்[தொகு]

WAV, AIFF ஆகிய வடிவங்கள் பலவித ஒலிக்கோப்புகளுக்காகப் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. இதற்கு பிறகு வந்த BWF (Broadcast Wave Format) பலவித தொலைக்காட்சி, வானொலி முறைகளுக்குப் பயன்படுத்தப் படுகிறது. இந்த ஒலிக்கோப்புகள் தேதி அடிப்படையில் எளிதாக்க் கோர்த்து, மேலாண்மை செய்யவும், தனித்தும், பலவழி ஒலி வடிவ பயன்பாட்டிற்கும் பயன்பவதால், பல முன்னணி நிறுவனங்கள்( AETA,[1] Sound Devices,[2] Zaxcom,[3] HHB Communications Ltd,[4] Fostex, Nagra, Aaton,[5] and TASCAM), இவ்வடிவத்தைப் பயன்படுத்துகின்றன.

ஒலிக்கோப்பு வடிவ வகைகள்[தொகு]


File Extension Creation Company Description
.3gp Multimedia container format can contain proprietary formats as AMR, AMR-WB or AMR-WB+, but also some open formats
.aa Audible.com (அமேசான்.காம்) A low-bitrate audiobook container format with DRM, containing audio encoded as either எம்பி3 or the ACELP speech codec.
.aac The Advanced Audio Coding format is based on the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 standards. AAC files are usually ADTS or ADIF containers.
.aax Audible.com (அமேசான்.காம்) An Audiobook format, which is a variable-bitrate (allowing high quality) M4B file encrypted with DRM. MPB contains AAC or ALAC encoded audio in an MPEG-4 container. (More details below.)
.act ACT is a lossy ADPCM 8 kbit/s compressed audio format recorded by most Chinese MP3 and MP4 players with a recording function, and voice recorders
.aiff Apple A standard audio file format used by Apple. It could be considered the Apple equivalent of wav.
.amr AMR-NB audio, used primarily for speech.
.ape Matthew T. Ashland Monkey's Audio lossless audio compression format.
.au சன் மைக்ரோசிஸ்டம்ஸ் The standard audio file format used by Sun, யுனிக்சு and Java. The audio in au files can be PCM or compressed with the μ-law, a-law or G729 codecs.
.awb AMR-WB audio, used primarily for speech, same as the ITU-T's G.722.2 specification.
.dct NCH Software A variable codec format designed for dictation. It has dictation header information and can be encrypted (as may be required by medical confidentiality laws). A proprietary format of NCH Software.
.dss Olympus DSS files are an Olympus proprietary format. It is a fairly old and poor codec. GSM or MP3 are generally preferred where the recorder allows. It allows additional data to be held in the file header.
.dvf சோனி A Sony proprietary format for compressed voice files; commonly used by Sony dictation recorders.
.flac A file format for the Free Lossless Audio Codec, a lossless compression codec.
.gsm Designed for telephony use in Europe, gsm is a very practical format for telephone quality voice. It makes a good compromise between file size and quality. Note that wav files can also be encoded with the gsm codec.
.iklax iKlax An iKlax Media proprietary format, the iKlax format is a multi-track digital audio format allowing various actions on musical data, for instance on mixing and volumes arrangements.
.ivs 3D Solar UK Ltd A proprietary version with எண்முறை உரிமைகள் முகாமைத்துவம் developed by 3D Solar UK Ltd for use in music downloaded from their Tronme Music Store and interactive music and video player.
.m4a An audio-only MPEG-4 file, used by Apple for unprotected music downloaded from their ஐ-டியூன்ஸ் Music Store. Audio within the m4a file is typically encoded with AAC, although lossless ALAC may also be used.
.m4b An Audiobook / வலையொலி extension with AAC or ALAC encoded audio in an MPEG-4 container. Both M4A and M4B formats can contain metadata including chapter markers, images, and hyperlinks, but M4B allows "bookmarks" (remembering the last listening spot), whereas M4A does not.[6]
.m4p Apple A version of AAC with proprietary எண்முறை உரிமைகள் முகாமைத்துவம் developed by Apple for use in music downloaded from their ஐ-டியூன்ஸ் Music Store.
.mmf Yamaha, சேம்சங் A Samsung audio format that is used in ringtones. Developed by Yamaha (SMAF stands for "Synthetic music Mobile Application Format", and is a multimedia data format invented by the Yamaha Corporation, .mmf file format).
.mp3 MPEG Layer III Audio. It is the most common sound file format used today.
.mpc Musepack or MPC (formerly known as MPEGplus, MPEG+ or MP+) is an open source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160–180 kbit/s.
.msv சோனி A Sony proprietary format for Memory Stick compressed voice files.
.ogg, .oga, .mogg Xiph.Org Foundation A free, open source container format supporting a variety of formats, the most popular of which is the audio format Vorbis. Vorbis offers compression similar to MP3 but is less popular. Mogg, the "Multi-Track-Single-Logical-Stream Ogg-Vorbis", is the multi-channel or multi-track Ogg file format.
.opus இணைய பொறியியல் பணிக்குழு A lossy audio compression format developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and made especially suitable for interactive real-time applications over the Internet. As an open format standardised through RFC 6716, a reference implementation is provided under the 3-clause BSD license.
.ra, .rm RealNetworks A RealAudio format designed for streaming audio over the Internet. The .ra format allows files to be stored in a self-contained fashion on a computer, with all of the audio data contained inside the file itself.
.raw A raw file can contain audio in any format but is usually used with PCM audio data. It is rarely used except for technical tests.
.sln Signed Linear PCM format used by Asterisk. Prior to v.10 the standard formats were 16-bit Signed Linear PCM sampled at 8 kHz and at 16 kHz. With v.10 many more sampling rates were added.[7]
.tta The True Audio, real-time lossless audio codec.
.vox The vox format most commonly uses the Dialogic ADPCM (Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation) codec. Similar to other ADPCM formats, it compresses to 4-bits. Vox format files are similar to wave files except that the vox files contain no information about the file itself so the codec sample rate and number of channels must first be specified in order to play a vox file.
.wav Standard audio file container format used mainly in Windows PCs. Commonly used for storing uncompressed (PCM), CD-quality sound files, which means that they can be large in size—around 10 MB per minute. Wave files can also contain data encoded with a variety of (lossy) codecs to reduce the file size (for example the GSM or MP3 formats). Wav files use a RIFF structure.
.wma மைக்ரோசாப்ட் Windows Media Audio format, created by Microsoft. Designed with எண்முறை உரிமைகள் முகாமைத்துவம் (DRM) abilities for copy protection.
.wv Format for wavpack file http://www.wavpack.com/flash/wavpack.htm
.webm Royalty-free format created for HTML5 video.
.8svx Electronic Arts The IFF-8SVX format for 8-bit sound samples, created by Electronic Arts in 1984 at the birth of the Amiga.

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இவற்றையும் காணவும்[தொகு]

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