புன்னாடு

கட்டற்ற கலைக்களஞ்சியமான விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் இருந்து.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

சங்க இலக்கியங்கள் கூறும் புன்னாடு கபினி ஆற்றங்கரையின் தெற்கிலும் (எருமை நன்னாட்டிற்கு தெற்கிலும்), கொள்ளேகளம் பகுதிக்கு மேற்கிலும், கொடகு மலைகளுக்கு தென்கிழக்கிலும் அமைந்திருந்தது. சங்ககாலத்திலிருந்து கி.பி 5 ஆம் நூற்றாண்டு வரை[1] புன்னாடு கொங்கின் ஒரு பகுதியாக இருந்துவந்தது. பின்னர் புன்னாட்டு அரசனுக்கு ஆண் வாரிசு இல்லாமல், இளவரசியை கங்க மன்னனுக்கு மணமுடித்து கொடுத்ததோடு [2], புன்னாடு கங்கவாடியொடு இணைக்கப்பட்டு [3] புன்னாட்டின் வரலாறு முடிவடைந்தது. பின்னர் 16ஆம் நூற்றாண்டில் உம்மத்தூர் உடையார்கள் சத்தியமங்கலம், பவானி, ஈரோட்டை ஆண்டபோது [4], தெற்காணாம்பி / தெற்காணாம்பை நாடு [5] என்ற புன்னாட்டின் பெரும்பகுதி [6], மீண்டும் கொங்கதேசத்தொடு இணைக்கப்பட்டு [7][8], அதன்பின் மீண்டும் பிரிக்கப்பட்டது.

சங்ககாலப் போர்[தொகு]

சங்ககாலத்தில் நன்னன் என்பவன் இப்புன்னாட்டின் மீது போர் தொடுத்தான். தேர்ப்படையுடன் வந்த பொலம்பூண் நன்னன் இதனைத் தனதாக்கிக்கொண்டான். நன்னனின் படைத்தலைவன் மிஞிலி. இவன் ‘இகல் அடு கற்பு’க் கலையில் வல்லவன். புன்னாட்டு அரசனை “அஞ்சவேண்டாம்” என்று கூறிக்கொண்டு ஆய் எயினன் என்பவன் மிஞிலியைத் தாக்கினான். ஆனால் ஆய் எயினன் போரில் மாண்டான்.[9]

மேற்கோள்கள்[தொகு]

  1. An inscription of 300 A.D. said that the kingdom of Punnata was adorned by rivers Kaveri and Kapini, Kittur was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Punnata. There are various references to several naval expeditions sent by the rulers of V and VI Dynasties of Egypt, to the distant and mysterious land of “Punt”. This reference to “Punt” is identified as Punnata by some scholars. The Greek geographer Ptolemy (90 A.D. to 168 A.D.) had called it “Pounnata”. An inscription of 300 A.D. said that the kingdom of Punnata was adorned by rivers Kaveri and Kapini. Punnata rulers had matrimonial relations with Kadambas and Gangas. All these evidences indicate the antiquity of Punnata..
  2. In the 5th century the Ganga king Avinita married the Punnad Raja's daughter, and the province thus came to be annexed to Ganga vadi under their son Durvvinita, It is further mentioned in the 2nd century A.D., by Ptolemy as Pounnata, ' where is beryl. In the 5th century the Ganga king Avinita married the Piumad Eaja's daughter, and the province thus came to be annexed to Ganga vadi under their son Durvvinita. Jinasena, before mentioned, was of the Brihat-Punnata-sangha. An inscription of the Punnad Raja gives Kitthipura as their capital, which is identified (Hs 56) with Kittur on the Kabbani river in the Heggadadevankote taluq. .
  3. The Punnata area, in modern Heggadadevanakote region, was under the Punnata rulers between the fourth and sixth centuries, until its merger with the Ganga territory., The Gangas established their supremacy in the second century AD and ruled over a large part of Mysore until about the 10th century. Sometime between the third and fifth centuries they established their capital at Talakad, On the banks of the River Cauvery. The Punnata area, in modern Heggadadevanakote region, was under the Punnata rulers between the fourth and sixth centuries, until its merger with the Ganga territory..
  4. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/17424/8/08_chapter%202.pdf இணைப்பு உரை], The four records of the Ummattur chief Nanjaraya Udaiyar found at Tirumuruganpundi and Avinasi attest the fact of their rule over these places. In one of the records of Tirumuruganpundi of Nanjaraya Udaiyar (1497 A.D.), it is stated that Onnakkalach Chettiar, a merchant of Emmarkal in Tinaikkanambai Nadu made an endowment of 15 Pon towards food-offering services for Lord Murugaudaiyar-tambiranar96. Another record in 1499 A.D. registers the gift of land with a saving capacity of 30 marakkal (a unit of measurement) of paddy in lieu of the amount of 6 Pon deposited into the treasury by Onnakkalach Chettiar, son of Nandagana Chettiar of Emmarkal in Tinaikkanambai Nadu , who was the Sivapradhani of Nanjaraya Udaiyar to meet the expenses of anga-ranga bhoga of the deity Tirumuruganpundi Aludaiya Nayanar .Two other records from Avinasi of the same ruler dated in 1499 A.D. records a gift of 3 Panam made by Onnakkalach Chettiar to meet the expenses for food offerings during the mid-day worship of the deity 84 Avinasiligam in Dhakshina Varanasi. Another inscription of the same period records a gift of land to Lord Avinasilingam by the same person98. The Umattur chieftains seem to have ruled over the Kongu country from 1446 to 1520 A.D. more or less peacefully rebuilding ruined temples and rehabilitating ruined towns. They seem to have also evinced considerable interest in agriculture, irrigation and trade and by all this, did much to repair the damage done by the Muslim rule. This rule however existed for a brief duration. It was extinguished by Krishnadeva Raya (1509 A.D -1529 A.D.).
  5. [1], Terakanambi is a village in the southern state of Karnataka, India. It is located in the Gundlupet taluk of Chamarajanagar district in Karnataka.
  6. [2], Terakanambi situated at a distance of 12 km from Gundlupet was a secondary capital of the Ummattur chiefs. Earlier Madhava Dannayaka was governing the Padinalkunadu, sub-division from Terakanambi says a record-dated 1310 A.D.
  7. on the date of the record No. 220 Vira Nanjanna-udaiyar was administering Terakanambi-nadu, followed by his son Chikkaraya in 1508 A.D. - Epigraphia Carnatika Vol. III (Revised), 1974, Intro. P. 117, If on the date of the record No. 220 Vira Nanjanna-udaiyar was administering Terakanambi-nadu, followed by his son Chikkaraya in 1508 A.D., we may infer that by the date of the former record, Ummattur had not been conquered by Krishnadevaraya. But it has been argued on the basis of a grap occurred between 1504 and 1530 A.D. and from the availability of record of 1513 A.D., October 4, that the Ummattur chief had been defeated before this date by Krishnadevarya, who had bestowed the mayakatana of Terkanambe-sime upon Saluva Govindaraja, son of Rachiraja. (E.C., Vol. III (Revised), 1974, Intro. P. 117). .
  8. on the date of the record No. 220 Vira Nanjanna-udaiyar was administering Terakanambi-nadu, followed by his son Chikkaraya in 1508 A.D. - South Indian Inscriptions, Volume 26, Introduction 2, If on the date of the record No. 220 Vira Nanjanna-udaiyar was administering Terakanambi-nadu, followed by his son Chikkaraya in 1508 A.D., we may infer that by the date of the former record, Ummattur had not been conquered by Krishnadevaraya. But it has been argued on the basis of a grap occurred between 1504 and 1530 A.D. and from the availability of record of 1513 A.D., October 4, that the Ummattur chief had been defeated before this date by Krishnadevarya, who had bestowed the mayakatana of Terkanambe-sime upon Saluva Govindaraja, son of Rachiraja. (E.C., Vol. III (Revised), 1974, Intro. P. 117). .
  9. தொடுத்தென் மகிழ்ந செல்லல் கொடித்தேர்ப் பொலம்பூண் நன்னன் புன்னாடு கடிந்தென - அகநானூறு 396
"https://ta.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=புன்னாடு&oldid=1733712" இருந்து மீள்விக்கப்பட்டது