விக்கிப்பீடியா:கட்டுப்பட்ட உள்ளடக்கம்

கட்டற்ற கலைக்களஞ்சியமான விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் இருந்து.
தாவிச் செல்லவும்: வழிசெலுத்தல், தேடல்


✔ இப்பக்கம் தமிழ் விக்கிபீடியாவில் கட்டுப்பட்ட உள்ளடக்கம் தொடர்பான நடைமுறைகளை ஆவணப்படுத்துகிறது. கட்டாயமில்லை எனினும் இங்கு கூறப்பட்டுள்ளவற்றை பின்பற்றுமாறு வேண்டப்படுகிறீர்கள். விதிவிலக்குகள் தோன்றினால் பகுத்தறிவுடன் கூடிய நடைமுறையைப் பின்பற்றுங்கள்! முரண்பாடுகள் தோன்றின் பொது இணக்கத்தை அடையுமுன்னர் மாற்றங்களைச் செய்யாதிருங்கள்! முரண் களைய இதன் பொது பேச்சுப் பக்கத்தைப் பயன்படுத்துங்கள்!
குறுக்கு வழிகள்:
WP:NFC
WP:NONFREE
WP:FU
WP:FAIR
"WP:FU" redirects here. For Wikipedia:WikiProject Fair use, use WP:WPFU.

கொள்கை[தொகு]

Yes check.svg இந்தப் பகுதி விக்கிபீடியாவின் உத்தியோகப்பட்ச கொள்கைகளை கொண்டுள்ளது. எல்லா விக்கிபீடியரும் இக்கொள்கைகளை பின்பற்றுவர் என எதிர்பார்க்கப் படுகிறது. பொது இணக்கப்பட்டுடன் இப்பகுதியில் உள்ளக் கொள்கைகளை மாற்றிக் கொள்ளலாம்.

பின்வரும் பகுதி விக்கிப்பீடியா:Non-free content criteria என்றப் பக்கத்திலிருந்து
நேரடியாக இங்கு இணைக்கப் பட்டுள்ளது


As per the March 23rd, 2007 Wikimedia Foundation Licensing policy resolution this document serves as the Exemption Doctrine Policy for the English Wikipedia.

நோக்கங்கள்[தொகு]

இந்தக் கொள்கை வகுப்புக்கு மூன்று முக்கிய நோக்கங்கள் காணப்படுகின்றன.

  • எவராலும் தொகுக்க, விநியோகிக்க, பயன்படுத்தக் கூடிய கட்டற்ற கலைக்களஞ்சியம் ஒன்றை ஆக்குதல் என்ற விக்கிப்பீடியாவின் வேலைத்திட்டத்தைப் பாதுகாத்தல்.
  • ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்காவின் நியாயமான பயன்பாட்டுச் சட்டத்தைக் காட்டிலும் இறுக்கமான சட்டங்களைக் கொண்ட நாடுகளில் சட்ட சிக்கல்களை தவிர்க்கும் பொருட்டு கட்டுப்பட்ட உள்ளடக்கங்களின் எண்ணிக்கையைக் கட்டுப்படுத்தல்.
  • படிமங்கள், காணொலி, ஒலிக் கோப்புக்களை வேண்டிய அளவில் மாத்திரம் பயன்படுத்தி தரமான கலைக்களஞ்சியம் ஒன்றை ஆக்குதல்.

கொள்கை[தொகு]

For purposes of this policy "non-free content" means all copyrighted images and other media files that lack a free content license. Such material may be used on the English Wikipedia only where all 10 of the following criteria are met.

  1. No free equivalent. Non-free content is used only where no free equivalent is available, or could be created, that would serve the same encyclopedic purpose. Where possible, non-free content is transformed into free material instead of using a fair-use defense, or replaced with a freer alternative if one of acceptable quality is available; "acceptable quality" means a quality sufficient to serve the encyclopedic purpose. (As a quick test, ask yourself: "Can this image be replaced by a different one that has the same effect, or adequately conveyed by text without using a picture at all?" If the answer is yes, the image probably does not meet this criterion.)
  2. Respect for commercial opportunities. Non-free content is not used in a manner that is likely to replace the original market role of the original copyrighted media.
  3. (a) Minimal usage. As few non-free content uses as possible are included in each article and in Wikipedia as a whole. Multiple items are not used if one will suffice; one is used only if necessary.
    (b) Minimal extent of use. An entire work is not used if a portion will suffice. Low- rather than high-resolution/fidelity/sample length is used (especially where the original could be used for piracy). This rule also applies to the copy in the Image: namespace.
  4. Previous publication. Non-free content must have been published outside Wikipedia.
  5. Content. Non-free content meets general Wikipedia content requirements and is encyclopedic.
  6. Media-specific policy. The material meets Wikipedia's media-specific policy. For example, images must meet Wikipedia:Image use policy.
  7. One-article minimum. Non-free content is used in at least one article.
  8. Significance. Non-free content is used only if its presence would significantly increase readers' understanding of the topic, and its omission would be detrimental to that understanding.
  9. Restrictions on location. Non-free content is allowed only in articles (not disambiguation pages), and only in article namespace, subject to exemptions. (To prevent an image category from displaying thumbnails, add __NOGALLERY__ to it; images are linked, not inlined, from talk pages when they are a topic of discussion.)
  10. Image description page. The image or media description page contains the following:
    • (a) Attribution of the source of the material and, if different from the source, of the copyright holder. See: Wikipedia:Citing sources#Images.
    • (b) A copyright tag that indicates which Wikipedia policy provision is claimed to permit the use. For a list of image copyright tags, see Wikipedia:Image copyright tags/Non-free content.
    • (c) The name of each article (a link to the articles is recommended as well) in which fair use is claimed for the item, and a separate fair-use rationale for each use of the item, as explained at Wikipedia:Non-free use rationale guideline. The rationale is presented in clear, plain language, and is relevant to each use.

அமுல்படுத்தல்[தொகு]

இந்த கொள்கைகளுடன் பொருந்தாத கோப்புகள் கோப்பை பதிவேற்றியவருக்கு 48 மணித்தியால அவகாசம் கொடுக்கப்பட்டு நீக்கப்படும். நீக்கப்படுவதை தவிர்ப்பதற்கு பதிவேற்றிய பயனர் அல்லது வேறு ஒரு விக்கிபீடியர் மேல் குறித்த 10 காரணிகளையும் தக்கவைக்கக் கூடிய வாதத்தை முன்வைக்க வேண்டும். 2007 டிசம்பர் 31 நாளுக்கு முன்னர் பதிவேற்றப்பட்டப் படிமங்களுக்கு பதிவேற்றியவர் அல்லது வேறு பயனர் ஒருவர் கேட்டுக் கொண்டால் 7 தொடக்கம் 14 நாள் அவகாசம் கொடுக்கப்படலாம். நியாயமான பயன்பான்டின் கீழ் பதிவேற்றப்பட்டு ஒரு கட்டுரையிலும் பயன்படுத்தப்படாத படிமங்கள் பதிவேற்றியவருக்கு 7 நாள் அவகாசம் கொடுத்து நீக்கப்படும்.

Deletion criteria for non-free content are specified in Wikipedia:Criteria for speedy deletion.

An image whose only violation is the lack of a fair-use rationale for some (but not all) articles will not be deleted. Instead, the use of the image will be removed from the offending articles.

வார்ப்புரு:Wikipedia copyright

விளக்க எடுத்துக்காட்டுக்கள்[தொகு]

Non-free content that meets all of the policy criteria above but does not fall under one of the designated categories below may or may not be allowable, depending on what the material is and how it is used. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive, and depending on the situation there are exceptions. When in doubt as to whether non-free content may be included, please make a judgement based on the spirit of the policy, not necessarily the exact wording. If you want help in assessing whether a use is acceptable, please ask at Wikipedia:Requested copyright examinations or Wikipedia:Media copyright questions. Wikipedia talk:Copyrights, Wikipedia talk:Copyright problems, and Wikipedia talk:Non-free content may also be useful. These are places where those who understand copyright law and Wikipedia policy are likely to be watching.

ஏற்கக்கூடிய பயன்பாடு[தொகு]

உரை[தொகு]

Brief quotations of copyrighted text may be used to illustrate a point, establish context, or attribute a point of view or idea. Copyrighted text must be attributed and used verbatim. Any alterations must be clearly marked, i.e. [brackets] for added text, an ellipsis (...) for removed text, and emphasis noted after the quotation as "(emphasis added)" or "(emphasis in the original)". Extensive quotation of copyrighted text is prohibited.


ஒளி ஒலிக் கோப்புக்கள்[தொகு]

  1. Music clips may be used to identify a musical style, group, or iconic piece of music when accompanied by appropriate sourced commentary and attributed to the copyright holder. Samples should generally not be longer than 30 seconds or 10% of the length of the original song, whichever is shorter (see Wikipedia:Music samples).
  2. Spoken word clips of historical events, such as speeches by public figures, may be used when accompanied by appropriate sourced commentary and attributed to the speaker/author.
  3. For further information, see Wikipedia:Music samples.

படிமங்கள்[தொகு]

Some copyrighted images may be used on Wikipedia, providing they meet both the legal criteria for fair use, and Wikipedia's own guidelines for non-free content. Copyrighted images that reasonably can be replaced by free/libre images are not suitable for Wikipedia.

  1. Cover art: Cover art from various items, for identification only in the context of critical commentary of that item (not for identification without critical commentary).
  2. Team and corporate logos: For identification. See Wikipedia:Logos.
  3. Stamps and currency: For identification of the stamp or currency, not its subject.
  4. Other promotional material: Posters, programs, billboards, ads. For critical commentary.
  5. Film and television screen shots: For critical commentary and discussion of the cinema and television.
  6. Screenshots from software products: For critical commentary.
  7. Paintings and other works of visual art: For critical commentary, including images illustrative of a particular technique or school.
  8. Images with iconic status or historical importance: As subjects of commentary.

ஏற்க முடியாத பயன்பாடு[தொகு]

உரை[தொகு]

  1. Unattributed pieces of text from a copyrighted source.
  2. Excessively long copyrighted excerpts.
  3. An image of a newspaper article or other publication that contains long legible sections of copyrighted text. If the text is important as a source or quotation, it should be worked into the article in text form with the article cited as a source.
  4. All copyrighted text poses legal problems when making spoken word audio files from Wikipedia articles, and should be avoided in such files, because the resulting audio file cannot be licensed under the GFDL.

ஒளி ஒலிக் கோப்புக்கள்[தொகு]

  1. Excessive quantities of short audio clips in a single article. A smaller number may be appropriate if each is accompanied by commentary in the accompanying text.
  2. A long audio excerpt, to illustrate a stylistic feature of a contemporary band; see above for acceptable limits.
  3. A short video excerpt from a contemporary film, without sourced commentary in the accompanying text.

படிமங்கள்[தொகு]

நியாயமான பயன்பாட்டிற்கான சட்ட விதிகளையும், விக்கிப்பீடியாவின் கட்டற்ற உள்ளடக்கம் தொடர்பான விதிகளையும் நிவர்த்தி செய்யுமிடத்து தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் பதிப்புரிமையால் கட்டுப்பட்ட சில படிமங்களை பயன்படுத்தலாம். கட்டற்ற படிமங்கள் உள்ள அல்லது கட்டற்ற படிமங்கள் தயாரிக்கப்படக்கூடிய கருப்பொருள் தொடர்பான படிமங்கள் தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியாவுக்கு பொருத்தமற்றவையாகும்.

  1. Cover art: Cover art from various items, for identification only in the context of critical commentary of that item (not for identification without critical commentary).
  2. Team and corporate logos: For identification. See Wikipedia:Logos.
  3. Stamps and currency: For identification of the stamp or currency, not its subject.
  4. Other promotional material: Posters, programs, billboards, ads. For critical commentary.
  5. Film and television screen shots: For critical commentary and discussion of the cinema and television.
  6. Screenshots from software products: For critical commentary.
  7. Paintings and other works of visual art: For critical commentary, including images illustrative of a particular technique or school.
  8. Images with iconic status or historical importance: As subjects of commentary.

பட்டியல்களில் கட்டுப்பட்ட படிமங்களின் பயன்பாடு[தொகு]

In articles and sections of articles that consist of several small sections of information for a series of elements common to a topic, such as a list of characters in a fictional work, non-free images should be used judiciously to present the key visual aspects of the topic. It is inadvisable to provide a non-free image for each entry in such an article or section. The following considerations should be made to reduce the amount of new non-free images associated with such lists:

  1. Images that show multiple elements of the list at the same time, such as a cast shot or montage for a television show, are strongly preferred over individual images. Such an image should be provided by the copyright holder or scanned/captured directly from the copyrighted work, instead of being created from multiple non-free images by the user directly.
  2. Images which are discussed in detail in the context of the article body, such as a discussion of the art style, or a contentious element of the work, are preferable to those that simply provide visual identification of the elements.
  3. An image that provide a representative visual reference for other elements in the article, such as what an alien race may look like on a science-fiction television show, is preferred over providing a picture of each element discussed.
  4. If another non-free image of an element of an article is used elsewhere within Wikipedia, either referring to its other use or, more preferably, repeating its use on the list are strongly preferred over including a new, separate, non-free image. If repeating a non-free image's use, please be aware that a new non-free fair use rationale must be supplied for the image for the new use.
  5. For media which utilizes live actors, do not supply an image of the actor in their role if an appropriate free image of the actor exists on their page (as per விக்கிப்பீடியா:வாழும் மனிதர்களின் வாழ்க்கை வரலாறு and above), if there is little difference in appearance between actor and role. However, if there is a significant difference due to age or makeup and costuming, then, when needed, it is appropriate to include a non-free image to demonstrate the role of the actor in that media.
  6. Barring the above, images that are used only to visually identify elements in the article should be used as sparingly as possible. Consider restricting such uses to major characters and elements or those that cannot be described easily in text, as agreed to by editor consensus.

நடைமுறைப்படுத்தல்[தொகு]

Non-free images need a copyright tag, source information, and use rationales. We have various copyright tag templates. Be sure to describe the source from which the image was obtained. A separate use rationale must be written each time the image is used in an article, specific to that particular use. All of these go in the image description page at the time the image file is uploaded.

Explanation of policy and guidelines[தொகு]

Background[தொகு]

"Free" content is defined as that which meets the "Definition of Free Cultural Works".

Material that is not free is permitted only if it meets the restrictions of this policy. This has been explicitly declared since May 2005.[1] The stated mission of the விக்கிமீடியா நிறுவனம், which runs Wikipedia, is "to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally." These concerns are embodied in the above requirements that all non-free content must meet, and our policy of deleting non-compliant content. Being generous to the world sometimes means being hard on ourselves. Please understand that these rules are not arbitrary; they are central to our mission.

Wikipedia distributes content throughout the world with no restrictions on how people use it. Legally, we could use any copyrighted material for ourselves that is either licensed to us by the owner, or that fits the definition of "fair use" under US copyright law. However, we favor content that everyone can use, not just Wikipedia. We want them to be free to use, redistribute, or modify the content, for any purpose, without significant legal restrictions, particularly those of பதிப்புரிமை.

To honor its mission, Wikipedia accepts incoming copyright licenses only if they meet the definition of "free" use. This is a higher standard than we would need just for our own use. But our ability to use a work does not guarantee that others may use it. We reject licenses that limit use exclusively to Wikipedia or for non-commercial purposes. Commercial use is a complex issue that goes well beyond a company's for-profit status, another reason to be careful. In fact, we reject any licenses with significant limitations. That is not free enough.

Similarly, Wikipedia imposes higher fair-use standards on itself than US copyright law. There are some works, such as important photographs, significant modern artworks, that we cannot realistically expect to be released under a free content license, but that are hard to discuss in an educational context without including examples from the media itself. In other cases such as cover art / product packaging, a non-free work is needed to discuss a related subject. This policy allows such material to be used if it meet U.S. legal tests for fair use, but we impose additional limitations. Just because something is "fair use" on a Wikipedia article in the US does not mean it is fair use in another context. A downstream user's commercial use of content in a commercial setting may be illegal even if our noncommercial use is legal. Use in another country with different fair use and fair dealing laws may be illegal as well. That would fail our mission. We therefore limit the media content we offer, to make sure what we do offer has the widest possible legal distribution.

We do not want downstream re-users to rely solely on our assurances. They are liable for their own actions, no matter what we tell them. We therefore show them and let them make their own decision. To that end we require a copyright tag describing the nature of a copyrighted work, sourcing material saying exactly where any non-free content comes from, and a detailed non-free media rationale for every use of copyrighted content in every article, justifying why use in that article is permitted.

A further goal of minimizing licensed and fair-use material is to encourage creation of original new content, rather than relying on borrowed content that comes with restrictions.

Legal position[தொகு]

In general[தொகு]

Under ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்காவின் பதிப்புரிமைச் சட்டம், creative works published in the United States prior to 1923 are in the பொது உரிமைப் பரப்பு. Some creative works published in the United States between 1923 and 1963 are still copyrighted. It is illegal (among other things) to reproduce or make derivative works of copyrighted works without legal justification.[2] Unless a thorough search is conducted to determine that a copyright has expired or not been renewed, it should be regarded as copyrighted.[3]

Certain works have no copyright at all. Most material published in the United States before 1923, works published before 1978 without a copyright notice, with an expired copyright term, or produced by the US government, among others, is பொது உரிமைப் பரப்பு, i.e. has no copyright. Some such as photos and scans of 2-dimensional objects and other "slavish reproductions", short text phrases, typographic logos, and product designs, do not have a sufficient degree of creativity apart from their functional aspects to have a copyright.

Copyright law only governs creative expressions that are "fixed in a tangible medium of expression," not the ideas or information behind the works. It is legal to reformulate ideas based on written texts, or create images or recordings inspired by others, as long as there is no copying (see கருத்துத் திருட்டு for how much reformulation is necessary).

If material does have a copyright, it may only be copied or distributed under a license (permission) from the copyright holder, or under the doctrine of நியாயமான பயன்பாடு. If there is a valid license, the user must stay within the scope of the license (which may include limitations on amount of use, geographic or business territory, time period, nature of use, etc.). Fair use, by contrast, is a limited right to use copyrighted works without permission, highly dependent on the specific circumstances of the work and the use in question. It is a doctrine incorporated as a clause in United States copyright code, arising out of a concern that strict application of copyright law would limit criticism, commentary, scholarship, and other important free speech rights. A comparable concept of fair dealing exists in some other countries, where standards may vary.

Any materials that were published in other nations, and which are copyrighted under the laws of that nation, should be considered to be copyrighted in the United States under the URAA.

Applied to Wikipedia[தொகு]

Never use materials that infringe the copyrights of others. This could create legal liabilities and seriously hurt the project.

Uploading an image file, audio or video file, or text quotation into Wikipedia, and adding that file to a project page, both raise copyright concerns. Editors who do either must make sure their contributions are legal. If there is any doubt as to legality, ask others for help, try to find a free equivalent, or use your own words to make the same point. Also, consider asking the copyright holder to release the work under an appropriate குனூ தளையறு ஆவண உரிமம் license. See Wikipedia:Boilerplate request for permission for a sample form letter.

If a work has no copyright or is licensed to Wikipedia under an acceptable "free" license, it is a free work and may be used on Wikipedia without copyright concerns. See பொது உரிமைப் பரப்பு, பதிப்புரிமை, and Cornell University's guide to copyright terms for discussion of works that are not covered by copyright. Also see free license regarding free licenses and Wikipedia:Image copyright tags/Free licenses for a list of copyright tags for these works. Restricted licenses to these works offer some legal rights, but Wikipedia ignores them because they are not free enough for its purposes. Instead, works covered by inadequate licenses are treated the same on Wikipedia as works with no licenses at all.

If a work is not free, Wikipedia requires that it comply with Wikipedia's non-free use policy. As explained above, this policy is more restrictive than US law requires. Logically, material that satisfies the policy should also satisfy legal requirements as well. However, to be more certain of avoiding legal liability, and to understand the meaning of Wikipedia policy, editors should consider the legal rules as well. See நியாயமான பயன்பாடு for further information, and the Stanford University summary of relevant cases, on the subject of fair use.

Non-free material is used only if, in addition to other restrictions, we firmly believe that the use would be deemed fair use if we were taken to court. The Wikimedia Foundation reserves the right to remove unfree copyrighted content at any time. Note that citation sources and external links raise other copyright concerns that are addressed in other policies.

Other Wikimedia projects[தொகு]

This policy is specific to the English language Wikipedia. Other Wikimedia projects, including Wikipedias in other languages, may have different policies on non-free content. Some of them do not allow any fair use.

இவற்றையும் பார்க்க[தொகு]

உசாத்துணை[தொகு]

  1. May 19, 2005 statement by Jimbo Wales
  2. "A 1961 Copyright Office study found that fewer than 15% of all registered copyrights were renewed. For books, the figure was even lower: 7%. Barbara Ringer, "Study No. 31: Renewal of Copyright" (1960) "Study No. 31: Renewal of Copyright" (1960), reprinted in Library of Congress Copyright Office. Copyright law revision: Studies prepared for the Subcommittee on Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-sixth Congress, first [-second] session. (Washington: U. S. Govt. Print. Off, 1961), p. 220. ... A good guide to investigating the copyright and renewal status of published work is Samuel Demas and Jennie L. Brogdon, "Determining Copyright Status for Preservation and Access: Defining Reasonable Effort," Library Resources and Technical Services 41:4 (October, 1997): 323-334." , Hirtle, Peter (2007) Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States footnote 7. Of the total US material first published between 1923 and 1963, the percentage of renewed copyrights is far lower, because most published material was never registered at all.

  3. To find out how to search for copyright registrations and renewals, see, e.g., How to Investigate the Copyright Status of a Work, Stanford's Copyright Renewal Database, Project Gutenberg and INFORMATION ABOUT The Catalog of Copyright Entries.

வெளி இணைப்புகள்[தொகு]