விக்கிப்பீடியா:வார்ப்புருத் தகவல்கள்/கட்டுரை மூலங்கள்

கட்டற்ற கலைக்களஞ்சியமான விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் இருந்து.
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குறுக்கு வழி:
WP:CTT

This page contains the following:

Issues with sources[தொகு]

Is the article worth it?[தொகு]

Before placing templates on a page it is worthwhile to consider whether it should in fact be included in Wikipedia according to விக்கிப்பீடியா:தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா இவை அன்று. Some articles can be tagged for speedy deletion or marked as an article for deletion.

Dates[தொகு]

It is useful to add the date of the request (or sometimes, a bot will assist by doing it automatically) by appending |date=month year to the template code, like this: {{Unreferenced|date=அக்டோபர் 2019}} to produce this:

விக்கிப்பீடியா:Template messages/Cleanup/Verifiability and sources

Including third-party content[தொகு]

United States government attribution templates[தொகு]

These templates can be added to articles (close to the end of the article, in the References or External links section, for example). Before adding the template to an article, check the details of the usage—some templates require parameters such as a URL. Most of these templates add the articles to the category Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government.

Template Display
{{US Air Force}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Air Force.
{{AFHRA}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.
{{Bioguide}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
{{CDC}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
{{CIA World Factbook}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the த வேர்ல்டு ஃபக்ட்புக்.
{{USCG}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Coast Guard.
{{DADS}} Talk Black, Paul E.. "{{{1}}}". NIST.
{{DANFS}} Talk This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
{{DHS}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Homeland Security.
{{DoE}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Energy.
{{FJC Bio}} Talk
{{FS1037C}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C".
{{FS1037C MS188}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C" (in support of MIL-STD-188).
{{GHR}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States National Library of Medicine document "Genetics Home Reference".
{{Loc}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.
{{Marine Corps}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
{{NARA}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Archives and Records Administration.
{{NASA}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
{{NCBI-handbook}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from the National Center for Biotechnology Information document "NCBI Handbook".
{{NCBI-scienceprimer}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from the NCBI document "Science Primer".
{{NCI-cancer-dict}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from the U.S. National Cancer Institute document "Dictionary of Cancer Terms".
{{NHC}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History & Heritage Command.
{{NIMH}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Institute of Mental Health.
{{NIST-PD}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
{{NLM content}} Talk This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.
{{NPS}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Park Service.
{{NPS.Gov}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Park Service.
{{NTSB}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Transportation Safety Board.
{{NVR}} Talk This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain.
{{OSGguide}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Office of the Solicitor General.
{{Recreation.Gov}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Recreation Reservation Service.
{{US DOS}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State.
{{US DOS Background Notes}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes).
{{US Army}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army.
{{USACE.Army.Mil}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Corps of Engineers.
{{USDA}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Agriculture.
{{USDHHS-PD}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
{{USGS}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Geological Survey.
{{USGovernment}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Government.
{{USGovernment-Navy}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Navy.
{{USGovernment-courts}} Talk This article incorporates written opinion of a United States federal court. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the text is in the public domain. "[T]he Court is unanimously of opinion that no reporter has or can have any copyright in the written opinions delivered by this Court.” Wheaton v. Peters, 33 U.S. (8 Pet.) 591, 668 (1834)
{{Usgs-gazetteer}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document " " (content from the Geographic Names Information System).

Other[தொகு]

Some of the reference types below use named fields (such as Title=Electric Power Monthly). In these references, you must use the exact field name (capitalization matters). Fields are separated with pipe (|) characters. The order of the fields does not matter.

Public domain[தொகு]

What to type What it makes Where it goes
{{1728}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain "article name needed". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (first). (1728). James and John Knapton, et al.  Articles
near bottom
{{1771 Britannica}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from the 1771 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Articles
near bottom
{{1911}}
Talk
Public Domain இந்தக் கட்டுரை  தற்போது பொது உரிமைப் பரப்பிலுள்ள நூலிலிருந்து உரையைக் கொண்டுள்ளது:  பிரித்தானிக்கா கலைக்களஞ்சியம் (11th). (1911). Cambridge University Press.  Articles
near bottom
{{Sect1911}}
Talk
Public Domain This section incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain பிரித்தானிக்கா கலைக்களஞ்சியம் (11th). (1911).  Articles
at the end of a section
{{1913}}
Talk
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Porter, Noah, தொகுப்பாசிரியர். (1913) Webster's Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts: C. & G. Merriam Co.  Articles
near bottom
{{A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainJohn William Cousin (1910). A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. Wikisource  Articles
near bottom
{{Catholic}}
Talk
 இந்தக் கட்டுரை தற்போது பொது உரிமைப் பரப்பில் உள்ள வெளியீடு ஒன்றின் பகுதிகளைக் கொண்டுள்ளது:  Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). நியூயோர்க்: இராபர்ட் ஆப்பில்டன்.  Articles
near bottom
{{DCBL}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain "article name needed". Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century (third). (1911). London: John Murray.  Articles
near bottom
{{DNB}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Dictionary of National Biography. (1885–1900). London: Smith, Elder & Co.  Articles
near bottom
{{Eastons}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the பொது உரிமைப் பரப்புEaston, Matthew George (1897). "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised). T. Nelson and Sons.  Articles
at top
{{Etude}}
Talk
This article incorporates text from a publication that prior to 1923, is in the public domain: The Etude (Philadelphia: Theodore Presser Company)  Articles
near bottom
{{Gray's}}
Talk
Articles
near bottom
{{Grocers}}
Talk
PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWard, Artemas (1911). The Grocer's Encyclopedia.   Articles
near bottom
{{GSE}}
Talk
GSE: {{{1}}} Articles
near bottom
{{JargonFile}}
Talk
This article is based in part on the Jargon File, which is in the public domain. Articles
near bottom
{{JewishEncyclopedia}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Jewish Encyclopedia. (1901–1906).  Articles
near bottom
{{KeyTarot}}
Talk
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1910 book Pictorial Key to the Tarot by Arthur Edward Waite. Please feel free to update the text. Articles
near bottom
{{NHC}}
Talk
 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History & Heritage Command. Articles
near bottom
{{Owl}}
Talk
Logo för Nordisk familjeboks uggleupplaga.png This article contains content from the Owl Edition of Nordisk familjebok, a Swedish encyclopedia published between 1904 and 1926, now in the public domain. Articles
near bottom
{{pg}}
Talk
This article incorporates facts obtained from: Lawrence Kestenbaum, The Political Graveyard  Articles
near bottom
{{RBD}}
Talk
This article includes content derived from the Russian Biographical Dictionary, 1896–1918. Articles
near bottom
{{Schaff-Herzog}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain "article name needed". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third). (1914). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.  Articles
near bottom
{{SeyffertDCA}}
Talk
This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of Classical Antiquities by Oskar Seyffert, edited by Henry Nettleship and J. E. Sandys (1894). Articles
near bottom
{{SmithDGRA}}
Talk
PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. (1870). London: John Murray.  Articles
near bottom
{{DGRBM}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the பொது உரிமைப் பரப்பு "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. (1870).  Articles
near bottom
{{DGRG}}
Talk
 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the பொது உரிமைப் பரப்பு "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. (1854–1857). London: John Murray.  Articles
near bottom
{{Vectorsite}}
Talk
The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite. Articles
Reference

Wikis[தொகு]

For interwiki translation and other copying, see Wikipedia:Copying within Wikipedia.

What to type What it makes Where it goes
{{Citizendium}}
Talk
This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "வார்ப்புருத் தகவல்கள்/கட்டுரை மூலங்கள்", which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL. Articles
near bottom
{{from Camerapedia}}
Talk

This article was originally based on one in Camerapedia, retrieved at an unknown date under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Articles
bottom
{{from Comixpedia}}
Talk

This page was originally based on an entry from Comixpedia and is used under the GNU Free Documentation License.

Articles
bottom
{{FOLDOC}}
Talk
This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later. Articles
near bottom
{{OpenHistory}}
Talk
This article incorporates text from OpenHistory. Articles
near bottom
{{wookieepedia content}}
Talk
Talk pages

Citations for footnotes and for linking[தொகு]

The following examples are examples of Wikipedia:Footnotes from {{Ref/examples}} are rendered as a template in the following table. These references can be used with the citations above to create a link from the text to the references.

What to type What it makes

Linking and footnote templates

Tags attached to links in text area:

  • "{{ref}} example{{ref|reference1}}"—Links to a citation in the Reference section labeled "reference1".
  • "{{ref label}} example{{ref label|example.com|2|none}}"—Links to a citation in the Reference section labeled "example.com". Text is marked with the number "2".

For two links to the same footnote labeled "example.com", you would:

  • "{{ref label}} example{{ref label|example.com|3|a}}"
  • "{{ref label}} example{{ref label|example.com|3|b}}"
  • "{{ref label}} example{{ref label|nextexample.com|4|4}}"

Tags attached to links in References or Footnote section:

"#{{note|reference1}} example of {{note}}"—In References section, citation labeled "reference1".

"#{{note label|example.com|2|none}}"—In References section, citation labeled "example.comnone". Creates backlink to matching {{ref label}} entry in the text labeled "example.comnone".

Now, if you have two links to the same footnote labeled "example.com", you would do:

"#{{note label|example.com|3|a}}{{note label|example.com|3|b}} example of {{note label}}"

"{{note label|nextexample.com|4|4}} example of {{note label}}"

  • "{{note label|lastexample.com|Jones 1999|none}}Jones (1999) {{note label}}"—Note that when the 3rd unnamed parameter is specified as "none", the ^ symbol is rendered for the backlink.
  • "{{note label|finalexample.com|Smith 2000|a}}{{note label|finalexample.com|Smith 2000|b}}Smith (2000)"


In text area:


In References or Footnote section:

  1. ^ example of {{note}}
  2. ^ example of {{note label}}
  3. a b example of {{note label}}

4 example of {{note label}}


Citations of specific sources[தொகு]

Notes:

What to type What it makes
{{ITIS|ID=|taxon=|accessdate=}}
Talk

"Genus species". ஒருங்கிணைந்த வகைப்பாட்டியல் தகவல் அமைப்பு (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). பார்த்த நாள் 1 January 2004.

{{FishBase species|genus=|species=|year=|month=}}
Talk

"Genus species". FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. January 2004 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2004.

{{FishBase species alt|ID=|taxon=|year=|month=}}
Talk

Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2004). Genus species in FishBase. January 2004 version.

{{FishBase_genus|genus=|year=|month=}}
Talk

Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (Year). Species of Genus in FishBase. Month Year version.

{{FishBase family|family=|year=|month=}}
Talk

Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (Year). "Family" in FishBase. Month Year version.

{{IUCN|author=|title=|year=|ID=|IUCN_Year=}}
Talk

"Title". பன்னாட்டு இயற்கைப் பாதுகாப்புச் சங்கத்தின் செம்பட்டியல் பதிப்பு IUCN_Year. பன்னாட்டு இயற்கைப் பாதுகாப்புச் சங்கம் (Year).

{{Gutenberg | no=6656 | name=The Kiltartan Poetry Book}}
Talk
{{MathWorld | urlname=PetersenGraph | title=Petersen Graph}}
Talk
Weisstein, Eric W., "Petersen Graph", MathWorld.
{{ScienceWorld | urlname=biography/Einstein.html | title=Albert Einstein}}
Talk
Weisstein, Eric W., Albert Einstein from ScienceWorld.
{{Wipipedia|Wiki_pagename_with_underscores}}
Talk
This article incorporates text from the article on Wiki_pagename_with_underscores in Wipipedia, the free-content Fetish and BDSM encyclopedia.
The Encyclopedia of World History at Bartleby.com

{{worldhistory|section=|quote=}}

  • section – the portion between http://www.bartleby.com/67/ and .html in the URL of the page you wish to cite. For example, if I wished to cite http://www.bartleby.com/67/716.html, the section is 716.
  • quote – What do you want the first part of the included text to read. The default is Citation.

Example: {{worldhistory|section=716|quote=Diderot's encyclopedia banned in 1751}}
Creates: Diderot's encyclopedia banned in 1751 from The Encyclopedia of World History Sixth Edition, Peter N. Stearns (general editor), © 2001 The Houghton Mifflin Company, at Bartleby.com.

USGS Geographic Names Information System

{{Cite gnis|id|name|type=}}

Example: {{Cite gnis|2410240|Cotati}}
Creates: "Cotati". ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்க நில அளவாய்வுத் துறை.

USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature

{{Gpn|id|name}}

Example: {{Gpn|65876|Stickney}}
Creates: Blue, Jennifer. "Stickney". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.

Citations of generic sources[தொகு]

Citation templates are used to format citations in a consistent way, as an alternative to formatting the citations by hand. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Templates may be used or removed at the discretion of individual editors, subject to agreement with other editors on the article. Because templates can be contentious, editors should not add citation templates, or change an article with a consistent citation format to another, without gaining consensus; see விக்கிப்பீடியா:மேற்கோள் சுட்டுதல் and விக்கிப்பீடியா:மேற்கோள் சுட்டுதல். The various citation templates below may be freely mixed, since they all produce a similar format.

Use in footnotes[தொகு]

For a citation to appear in a footnote, it needs to be enclosed in "ref" tags. You can add these by typing <ref> at the front of the citation and </ref> at the end. Alternatively you may notice above the edit box there is a row of "markup" formatting buttons which include a <ref></ref> button to the right—if you highlight your whole citation and then click this markup button, it will automatically enclose your citation in ref tags (i.e. <ref>citation</ref>).

Note, if this is a new page or if there are not already references previously cited, it is necessary to create a section usually named "Notes" or "References" near the end of the page; see விக்கிப்பீடியா:பக்க வடிவமைப்பு கையேடு and விக்கிப்பீடியா:பக்க வடிவமைப்பு கையேடு for more information on section names:

== Notes ==
<references />

or

== Notes ==
{{Reflist}}

Using the same footnote multiple times[தொகு]

Add a name attribute when creating a footnote <ref name="name">citation text</ref>. Thereafter, the footnote may be referenced by just using the following expression <ref name="name" />.

Using multiple pages from the same source[தொகு]

When an article cites many different pages from the same source, there are two main methods of unifying them instead of copying a completely new citation. One method is shortened footnotes (see Shortened footnotes), which automatically displays an entirely new reference listing in the References section per unique page citation. Another method is to use the template {{rp}}, which appends any type of positional information (such as page numbers, chapter numbers, or audiovisual time code) directly each given citation in the article body, which would result in text such as :2345 appearing after a superscripted footnote number.

Creating links to citations[தொகு]

Wikilinks to citation templates can be created using the templates {{harv}}, {{harvnb}}, {{harvtxt}}, {{sfn}}, etc. For example this "Mumford 1999" links to a citation template below. This is of particular interest for inline citations using parenthetical referencing or when using shortened footnotes.[1] (See the examples below or wikilinks to full references)

Using commas rather than periods[தொகு]

{{Citation}} creates a citation in the same format as most of the Citation Style 1 templates, except that the periods are replaced with commas and there is no final period. A complete list of templates that are mimicked by {{citation}} can be found at {{citation/core}}. The parameters |separator= |postscript= (available for most templates) can also be used to alter the punctuation.

Examples[தொகு]

இதனையும் பார்க்க: பகுப்பு:Citation templates.

Below are examples of how to use various templates to cite a book, encyclopedia, journal, website, comic strip, video and editorial comics, etc.

  • For full description of a template and the parameters which can be used with it—click the template name (e.g. {{Citation}} or {{cite xxx}}) in the "template" column of the table below.
  • Required field(s) are indicated in bold
  • Copy and paste the text under "common usage" to use the template.
  • Following each example is the resulting article text.

For a list of tools that can help create some of the templates below, see: Wikipedia:Citation tools.

Citations are commonly embedded in reference templates. For more information, see: Wikipedia:Footnotes.

source template common usage Example 1 Example 2
book {{cite book}}
title
{{cite book
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | edition =
 | date =
 | location =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{cite book
 | last = Mumford
 | first = David
 | author-link = David Mumford
 | title = The Red Book of V...
 | publisher = [[இசுபிரிங்கர் பதிப்பகம்]]
 | series = Lecture Notes ...
 | volume = 1358
 | edition = 2nd expanded
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 1999
 | page = 198
 | doi = 10.1007/b62130
 | isbn = 354063293X
 | mr = 1748380
 | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

David Mumford (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. 1358 (2nd expanded ). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. பக். 198. doi:10.1007/b62130. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:354063293X. 

{{cite book
 | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
 | first2 = Jeff | last2 = Grubb
 | first3 =David | last3 = Noonan
 | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
 | location = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
 | pages = 198–203
 | date = September 2001
 | isbn = 0-786918-50-0 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes. Berlin: Wizards of the Coast. பக். 198–203. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:0-786918-50-0. 

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | orig-year =
 | year =
 | month=
 | edition =
 | chapter =
 | chapter-url =
 | page =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | url =
 | archive-url =
 | archive-date =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{Citation
 | first = David | last = Mu...
 | author-link = David Mumfo...
 | title = The Red Book of V...
 | place = Berlin
 | publisher = [[இசுபிரிங்கர் பதிப்பகம்]]
 | series = Lecture Notes ...
 | volume = 1358
 | edition = 2nd expanded
 | year = 1999
 | page = 198
 | doi = 10.1007/b62130
 | isbn = 354063293X
 | mr = 1748380
 | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

David Mumford (1999), The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 1358 (2nd expanded ), Berlin: இசுபிரிங்கர் பதிப்பகம், p. 198, doi:10.1007/b62130, பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:354063293X 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
 | last2 = Grubb | first2 = Jeff
 | last3 = Noonan | first3 = David
 | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
 | place = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
 |pages = 198–203
 | date = September 2001
 | isbn = 0-786918-50-0 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001), Manual of the Planes, Berlin: Wizards of the Coast, pp. 198–203, பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:0-786918-50-0 

journal
paper
thesis
dissertation
See also {{cite thesis}}
{{cite journal}}
Title
{{cite journal
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | location =
 | date =
 | language =
 | url =
 | jstor =
 | issn =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite journal
 | author-link = Stephen Brey...
 | title = Copyright: A Rejo...
 | journal = UCLA Law Review
 | volume = 20
 | pages = 75–83
 | date = October 1972 }}

Stephen Breyer (October 1972). "Copyright: A Rejoinder". UCLA Law Review 20: 75–83. 

{{cite journal
 | last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
 | author1-link = David H. Bailey
 | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
 | author2-link = Peter Borwein
 | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
 | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
 | title = The Quest for Pi
 | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
 | volume = 19
 | issue = 1
 | pages = 50–57
 | publisher = Springer-Verlag
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 25 June 1997
 | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
 | issn =0343-6993
 | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
 | mr = 1439159
 | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

David H. Bailey; Peter Borwein; Jonathan Borwein (25 June 1997). "The Quest for Pi". Mathematical Intelligencer (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) 19 (1): 50–57. doi:10.1007/BF03024340. பன்னாட்டுத் தர தொடர் எண்:0343-6993. http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/dhbpapers/pi-quest.pdf. 

{{Citation}}
journal (or periodical)
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | date =
 | orig-year =
 | year =
 | month =
 | language =
 | url =
 | jstor =
 | archive-url =
 | archive-date =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Breyer
 | first = Stephen
 | author-link = Stephen Bre...
 | title = Copyright: A Rejo...
 | journal = UCLA Law Review
 | volume = 20
 | pages = 75–83
 | date = October 1972 }}

Stephen Breyer (October 1972), "Copyright: A Rejoinder", UCLA Law Review 20: 75–83 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
 | author1-link = David H. Bailey
 | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
 | author2-link = Peter Borwein
 | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
 | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
 | title = The Quest for Pi
 | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
 | volume = 19
 | issue = 1
 | pages = 50–57
 | publisher = Springer-Verlag
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 25 June 1997
 | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
 | issn =0343-6993
 | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
 | mr = 1439159
 | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

David H. Bailey; Peter Borwein; Jonathan Borwein (25 June 1997), "The Quest for Pi", Mathematical Intelligencer (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) 19 (1): 50–57, doi:10.1007/BF03024340, http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/dhbpapers/pi-quest.pdf 

website {{cite web}}
title
url
{{cite web
 | url =
 | title =
 | last =
 | first =
 | date =
 | website =
 | publisher =
 | access-date =
 | quote = }}
{{cite web
 | last = Spiegel
 | first = Rachel
 | title = Research: Thalido...
 | url = http://science-educat...
 | access-date = 30 April 2006
 | archive-url = http://web.archive...
 | archive-date = 3 March 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel. "Research in the News: Thalidomide". மூல முகவரியிலிருந்து 3 March 2006 அன்று பரணிடப்பட்டது.

{{cite web
 | title =
 | url =
 | website =
 | date = 
 | access-date = }}

(Write date as one of the formats shown at MOS:DATE; e.g. |date=22 July 2009 or |date=July 22, 2009.)

{{cite web
 | last = Hansen
 | first = James E.
 | author-link = James E. Hansen
 | last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
 | last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
 | last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
 | title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
 | website = NASA.gov
 | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for...
 | date = December 15, 2005
 | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
 | access-date = September 28, 2006 }}

Hansen, James E. (December 15, 2005). "GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation". NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

{{Citation}}
title
url
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | year =
 | url =
 | access-date = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Spiegel
 | first = Rachel
 | title = Research: Thalido...
 | url=http://science-educat...
 | access-date = 30 April 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel, Research in the News: Thalidomide, http://science-education.nih.gov/nihHTML/ose/snapshots/multimedia/ritn/Thalidomide/index.html, பார்த்த நாள்: 30 April 2006 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Hansen | first1 = James E.
 | author1-link = James Hansen
 | last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
 | last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
 | last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
 | title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
 | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for ...
 | date = December 15, 2005
 | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
 | access-date = September 28, 2006 }}

James Hansen; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (December 15, 2005), GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/2005/, பார்த்த நாள்: September 28, 2006 

comic {{cite comic}}[2]
{{cite comic
 | writer=
 | penciller=
 | inker=
 | story=
 | title=
 | volume=
 | issue=
 | date=
 | publisher=
 | page=
 | panel= }}
{{cite comic
 | writer=[[Stan Lee|Lee, Stan]]
 | penciller=[[Jack Kirby|Kirby, Jack]]
 | inker=[[Christopher Rule|Rule, Christopher]]
 | story=The Fantastic Four!
 | title=[[Fantastic Four|The Fantastic Four]]
 | volume=1
 | issue=1
 | date=November 1961
 | publisher=[[மார்வெல் காமிக்ஸ்]]
 | page=3
 | panel=2 }}

Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Rule, Christopher (i). "The Fantastic Four!" The Fantastic Four 1: 3/2 (November 1961), மார்வெல் காமிக்ஸ்

comic strip {{comic strip reference}}[3]
{{comic strip reference
 | cartoonist=
 | strip=
 | paper=
 | location=
 | date=
 | supplement=
 | syndicate=
 | page= }}
{{comic strip reference
 | cartoonist=[[Milton Caniff|Caniff, Milton]]
 | strip=[[Steve Canyon]]
 | paper=Journal Herald
 | location=Dayton, OH
 | date=July 15, 1967
 | supplement=Color Comics Supplement
 | syndicate=Newspaper Syndicate
 | page=1 }}

Caniff, Milton (c). Steve CanyonJournal Herald (Dayton, OH). July 15, 1967, [Color Comics Supplement], Newspaper Syndicate

 1.
conference
report
or paper
{{cite conference}}
title
booktitle
{{cite conference
 | first =
 | last =
 | author-link =
 | title =
 | book-title =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | location =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite conference
 | first = M.
 | last = Turk
 | first2 = A.
 | last2 = Pentland
 | title = Face recognition ...
 | book-title = Proc IEEE Con...
 | place = Maui, Hawaii
 | pages = 586–591
 | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.(1991). "Face recognition using eigenfaces". {{{booktitle}}}, 586–591.

{{cite conference
 | last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
 | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
 | last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
 | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
 | last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
 | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
 | title = Direct detection of the ...
 | book-title = American Astronomical Society 207th ...
 | publisher = AAS
 | date = January 9, 2006
 | url = http://www.aas.org/ ... 30.htm }}

(January 9, 2006) "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope". {{{booktitle}}}, AAS.

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
 | first =
 | last =
 | author-link =
 | first2 =
 | last2 =
 | author2-link =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | series =
 | year =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id = }}
{{Citation
 | last1 = Turk | first1 = M.
 | last2 = Pet... | first2 = A.
 | contribution = Face recog...
 | series = Proc IEEE Confere...
 | place = Maui, Hawaii
 | pages = 586–591
 | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Petland, A. (1991), "Face recognition using eigenfaces", Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Maui, Hawaii, pp. 586–591 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
 | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
 | last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
 | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
 | last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
 | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
 | contribution = Direct detection of ...
 | series = American Astronomical...
 | publisher = AAS
 | date = January 9, 2006
 | contribution-url = http://...30.htm }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (January 9, 2006), "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope", American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting, AAS, http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v37n4/aas207/1130.htm 

court case (legal decision) {{cite court}}
{{cite court
 | litigants =
 | vol =
 | reporter =
 | opinion =
 | pinpoint =
 | court =
 | date =
 | url= }}
{{cite court
 | litigants=Roe v. Wade
 | vol=410
 | reporter=U.S.
 | opinion=113
 | date=1973
 | url=http://www.law.corn... }}

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).

encyclopedia,
edited collection
{{cite encyclopedia}}
Title
encyclopedia
{{cite encyclopedia
 | title =
 | encyclopedia =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | id =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite encyclopedia
 | title = Kirkegaard...
 | encyclopedia = Grote Winkler Pri...
 | editor-last = Winkler Pri...
 | editor-first = Anthony
 | editor-link = Anthony Win...
 | volume = 9
 | publisher = Elsevier
 | year = 1882 }}

"Kirkegaard, Ole Lund". Grote Winkler Prins 9. (1882). Elsevier. 

{{cite encyclopedia
 | last = Kramer
 | first = Martin
 | author-link = Martin Kramer
 | editor-last = Boyd
 | editor-first = Kelley
 | title = Bernard Lewis
 | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Hist...
 | volume = 1
 | pages = 719–720
 | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
 | location = London
 | date = 1999
 | url = }}

Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. 719–720. 

{{Citation}}
contribution=name of article
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | contribution =
 | year =
 | title =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | id = }}
{{Citation
 | contribution = Kirkegaard...
 | title = Grote Winkler Pri...
 | editor-last = Winkler Pri...
 | editor-first = Anthony
 | editor-link = Anthony Win...
 | volume = 9
 | publisher = Elsevier
 | year = 1882 }}

Anthony Winkler Prins, தொகுப்பாசிரியர். (1882), "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund", Grote Winkler Prins, 9, Elsevier 

{{Citation
 | last = Kramer
 | first = Martin
 | author-link = Martin Kramer
 | contribution = Bernard Lewis
 | editor-last = Boyd
 | editor-first = Kelley
 | title = Encyclopedia of Historians ...
 | volume = 1
 | pages = 719–720
 | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
 | place = London
 | year = 1999
 | contribution-url = http://...is.htm }}

Martin Kramer (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

episode
(television or radio)
{{cite episode}}
title
{{cite episode
 | title =
 | episode-link =
 | url =
 | series =
 | series-link =
 | credits =
 | network =
 | station =
 | city =
 | air-date =
 | began =
 | ended =
 | season =
 | seriesno =
 | number =
 | minutes =
 | transcript =
 | transcript-url= }}
{{cite episode
 | title = BBC-TV Presents: ...
 | episode-link = BBC Snooker World ...
 | series = Wide World of Snooker
 | series-link = Wide World of Snooker ...
 | credits = Presenters: [[Dennis ...
 | network = [[பிபிசி]]
 | station = [[BBC Two]]
 | city = [[செபீல்டு]], ...
 | air-date = 2008-04-27
 | minutes = 2:34 }}

"BBC-TV Presents: The 2008 World Snooker Championship Live at The Crucible". Presenters: Dennis Taylor and Clive Everton. Wide World of Snooker. பிபிசி. BBC Two, செபீல்டு, இங்கிலாந்து. 2:34 minutes in.

{{cite episode
 | title = Duet
 | episode-link = Duet (Stargate Atlant...
 | series = Stargate Atlantis
 | series-link = Stargate Atlantis
 | air-date = August 5, 2005
 | season = 2
 | number = 4 }}

"Duet". Stargate Atlantis. No. 4, season 2.

mailing list {{cite mailing list}}
title
url
{{cite mailing list
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | title =
 | mailing-list =
 | date =
 | url =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite mailing list
 | last=Murdock
 | first=Ian
 | author-link=Ian Murdock
 | title=Debian GNU/Linux 0.9...
 | mailing-list=debian-announce
 | date=26 October 1995
 | url=http://lists.debian.or...
 | access-date =20 April 2007 }}

Murdock, Ian (26 அக்டோபர் 1995). "Debian GNU/Linux 0.93 Release 6 now available". debian-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved 20 ஏப்ரல் 2007.

map {{cite map}}
author
year or date
title
publisher
{{cite map
 | author =
 | year =
 | title =
 | url =
 | publisher = 
 | section =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite map
 | author=Kansas Departmen...
 | year=2005
 | title=Official State Trans...
 | url=http://www.ksdot.org/b...
 | format=PDF
 | edition=2005–06
 | location=Topeka
 | publisher=Kansas Departmen...
 | section=F9
 | access-date =March 30, 2007 }}

Kansas Department of Transportation (2005). Official State Transportation Map (PDF) (Map) (2005–06 ed.). Topeka: Kansas Department of Transportation. § F9. Retrieved 30 மார்ச்சு 2007.

{{cite map
 | author1=Skelly Oil Company
 | author2=Diversified Map Co
 | year=1966
 | title=Highway Map of Oklahoma
 | scale= [1:1,500,000]
 | location= St. Louis
 | publisher=Diversified Map Co
 | section=11C
 | oclc= 67708775 }}

Skelly Oil Company; Diversified Map Co (1966). Highway Map of Oklahoma (Map). [1:1,500,000]. St. Louis: Diversified Map Co. § 11C. OCLC 67708775.

news article {{cite news}}
Title
{{cite news
 | last =
 | first =
 | title =
 | newspaper =
 | location =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite news
 | last = Finn
 | first = Gary
 | title = What a growing lad needs is ...
 | pages =
 | newspaper = The Independent
 | location = London
 | date = 31 August 1998
 | url = http://www.independent.co.uk ... }}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998). "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/what-a-growing-lad-needs-is-a-naughty-book-says-blair-1175187.html. 

{{cite news
 | last = Andersen
 | first = David
 | last2 = Witter
 | first2 = Lameen
 | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
 | work = Marine Corps News
 | date = 17 February 2006
 | url = http://www.military.com/Caree...
 | access-date = 6 June 2006 }}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006). "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success". Marine Corps News. http://www.military.com/Careers/Content1?file=careersArticlesGoDaddy.htm&area=Reference. 

{{Citation}}
newspaper (or magazine, journal, periodical)
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | newspaper =
 | pages =
 | year =
 | date =
 | url =
 | archive-url =
 | archive-date =
 | access-date = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Finn
 | first = Gary
 | title = What a growing lad needs is ...
 | pages =
 | newspaper = The Independent
 | location = London
 | date = 31 August 1998
 | url = http://www.independent.co.uk ...
 | archive-url = http://www.webcitation ...
 | archive-date = 2010-03-06 }}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998), "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair", The Independent (London), http://www.independent.co.uk/news/what-a-growing-lad-needs-is-a-naughty-book-says-blair-1175187.html 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Andersen | first1 = David
 | last2 = Witter | first2 = Lameen
 | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
 | newspaper = Marine Corps News
 | date = 17 February 2006
 | url = http://www.military.com/Ca...
 | access-date = 2 June 2006 }}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006), "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success", Marine Corps News, http://www.military.com/Careers/Content1?file=careersArticlesGoDaddy.htm&area=Reference, பார்த்த நாள்: 2 June 2006 

newsgroup
posting
(DO NOT
USE TO
VERIFY)
{{cite newsgroup}}
Title
{{cite newsgroup
 | title =
 | author =
 | date =
 | newsgroup =
 | id =
 | url =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite newsgroup
 | author = Gary S. Terhune
 | title = Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del...
 | date = January 11, 2004
 | newsgroup = microsoft.pub...
 | id = uAIVMjC2DHA.2336@TK2...
 | url = http://groups.googl...
 | access-date = May 16, 2006 }}

Gary S. Terhune (January 11, 2004). "Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del function on W98, 2nd". microsoft.public.win98.gen_discussion. (Web link).

{{cite newsgroup
 | title = How can helping "Kids in Af...
 | author = Trodel
 | date = June 10, 2006
 | newsgroup= humanities.philosophy.ob...
 | id = 1149950890.204481.35810@h76g20...
 | url = http://groups.google.com/grou...
 | access-date = July 3, 2006 }}

Trodel (June 10, 2006). "How can helping "Kids in Africa" be in my self interest". humanities.philosophy.objectivism. (Web link).

patent {{Citation}}
inventor-last
{{Citation
 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number = }}
{{Citation
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US }}

US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

press release {{cite press release}}
Title
{{cite press release
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | access-date = }}
{{cite press release
 | title = Nature compares W...
 | publisher = The Wikimedia...
 | date = 15 December 2005
 | url = http://en.wikipedia...
 | access-date = 3 July 2006 }}

The Wikimedia Foundation(15 December 2005). "Nature compares Wikipedia and Britannica". செய்திக் குறிப்பு.

{{cite press release
 | title = HFPA Announces Timetable fo...
 | publisher = [[Hollywood Foreign P...]]
 | date = May 25, 2006
 | url = http://www.hfpa.org/news/id/32
 | access-date = June 13, 2006 }}

Hollywood Foreign Press Association(May 25, 2006). "HFPA Announces Timetable for 64th Annual Golden Globe Awards". செய்திக் குறிப்பு.

video
(movie, television production, documentary, etc.)
{{cite AV media}}
people
title
{{cite AV media
 | people =
 | title =
 | medium =
 | publisher =
 | location =
 | date =
 | url = }}
{{cite AV media
 | people = Al-Issawi, Omar (Director)
 | title = Harab libnan
 | medium = Television production
 | publisher = Al-Issawi, Om...
 | location = Lebanon
 | date = 2001 }}

Al-Issawi, Omar (Director) (2001). Harab libnan (Television production). Lebanon: Al-Issawi, Omar.

{{cite AV media
 | people = Dick Cavett
 | title = The Dick Cavett Show — Rock...
 | medium = DVD
 | publisher = Shout Factory
 | date = 2005 }}

Dick Cavett (2005). The Dick Cavett Show — Rock Icons (1969) (DVD). Shout Factory.

video game {{cite video game}}
title
developer
{{cite video game
 | title =
 | developer =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | platform =
 | version =
 | level =
 | language =
 | isolang =
 | quote = }}
{{cite video game
 | title=[[Halo 3]]
 | developer= [[Bungie]]
 | publisher=[[Microsoft Game Studios]]
 | date=September 25, 2007
 | platform=[[எக்ஸ் பாக்ஸ் 360]]
 | version=1.0
 | level=The Storm
 | language=English
 | isolang=
 | quote='''Arbiter''': More Brutes? /... }}

Bungie (September 25, 2007) (in English). Halo 3. எக்ஸ் பாக்ஸ் 360. Microsoft Game Studios. Level/area: The Storm. "Arbiter: More Brutes? / Master Chief: Worse." 


Harvard reference and shortened footnote examples[தொகு]

These templates automatically create a one-directional link to the first matching citation template on the same page. All the following templates are supported: {{citation}} · {{cite book}} · {{cite journal}} · {{cite web}} · {{cite conference}} · {{cite encyclopedia}} · {{cite mailing list}} · {{cite news}} · {{cite press release}} · {{cite arXiv}} · {{cite AV media}} (an up-to-date list is at வார்ப்புரு:Citation/core). To use the links, the template must define "Surname" (or "Last") and "Year" and must include |

What to type What it makes
  • Article text.{{sfn|Turner|1851|pp=10–11}} (Shortened footnote template)
  • Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1879|p=289}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

  • Article text.[1]
  • Article text.[2]
Notes
  1. ^Turner 1851, pp. 10–11
  2. ^Smith 1879, p. 289
  • {{Harvard citation|Turner|1851|pp=10–11}}
  • {{Harv|Smith|1879|p=289}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Turner|1851}} asserts that ... (author's name part of text)
  • {{Harvnb|Smith|1879}} (no brackets)
  • {{Harv|Lincoln|Washington|Adams|Johnson|2007|pp=88–89}} (multi-author)

Three Harvcol templates are altered to use colons to indicate page numbers.

Harvcol templates

  • ( [[#CITEREF|]])
  • ( [[#CITEREF|]])
  • ( [[#CITEREF|]]) asserts that ...
  • ( [[#CITEREF|]])
  • ( [[#CITEREF|]])

Variations[தொகு]

Wikipedia does not dictate a particular way to insert citations into an article. As a result, there are multiple ways to structure citations in an article; multiple ways to insert individual citations; and multiple ways to link short-form inline citations with the full-form citations in the bibliography, when using a style that calls for short-form citations.

There are three primary ways to format individual citations:

  1. By hand. When using inline citations (see below), these are simply typed directly; however, when using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, these can be surrounded with {{wikicite}} to ensure that the appropriate shortened references are linked to the full references below.
  2. Using the Citation Style 1 templates, such as {{cite book}}, {{cite web}}, {{cite journal}}, or {{cite news}}.
  3. Using the generic {{Citation}} template.

The main differences between the generic {{Citation}} template and the specific Citation Style 1 templates are:

  1. The Citation Style 1 templates produce citations with individual sections (e.g. title, author, publisher, etc.) separated by periods, with a trailing period, while {{Citation}} separates sections with a comma and has no trailing punctuation. (However, this can be changed using the |separator= and |postscript= parameters.)
  2. Not all Citation Style 1 templates can easily be replaced by the {{Citation}} template. Generally, any Citation Style 1 template of a general nature (e.g. book; web site; journal or newspaper article; article in an edited collection or encyclopedia; etc.) can be replaced, but specialized templates (court cases, comic books, video games, etc.) cannot very easily.
  3. Some of the parameter names differ. For example, citing an article in an edited collection uses the misnamed {{cite encyclopedia}} template, with |title= for the article name and |encyclopedia= for the collection name; the equivalent parameters in {{Citation}} are named contribution and title, respectively.
  4. When using parenthetical referencing, a Harv templates template that identifies a citation by author and year will automatically link to the appropriate citation elsewhere in the article if created using {{Citation}}. If created using Citation Style 1, however, a |ref=harv parameter must be added.

There are also at least three ways to structure citations as a whole in an article:

  1. Inline citations. These simply place the citation inside of a <ref>...</ref> reference, which inserts a small bracketed, superscripted number. When clicked on, it links to a correspondingly-numbered footnote (more properly an endnote) placed elsewhere in the article. The footnotes themselves are inserted using {{reflist}}, which is typically placed by itself in a Notes (or References) section near the end of the article. When there are multiple references to the same citation, typing can be saved by using <ref name="foo">...</ref> the first time, and just <ref name="foo"/> elsewhere. When there are citations that differ only in page number, there are two alternatives: write all the citations out in full, including the page number, or use one citation without page numbers along with the {{rp}} template to add an inline page number after the small bracketed footnote number.
  2. Shortened footnotes. Instead of the full-form citation appearing in the footnote, a shortened form appears, giving only the author and year (or in some styles, a shortened version of the article or book title), and page number if appropriate. The full citation appears later on, in a bibliography section. This usually follows directly after the footnotes, is titled "References" or "Bibliography", and contains all relevant citations, listed in alphabetical order. This style is especially appropriate when there are large numbers of references overall and frequent cases of multiple references to the same work, especially in the presence of differing page numbers.
  3. Parenthetical references. These are conceptually similar to shortened footnotes, but the shortened reference appears inline in the text, in parentheses, rather than in a footnote.

When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, there are multiple ways to link the shortened and full-form references:

  1. Don't link them. This happens by default when the shortened references are typed in by hand.
  2. Insert manual links. These look like e.g. [[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006, p. 25]]. The anchor #refPereira2006 is attached to the full-form citation by surrounding it with {{wikicite}} (if inserted by hand), or adding a |ref= parameter to the citation template.
  3. Insert links using a Harv templates template, e.g. {{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}. This will insert "Pereira 2006, p. 25" into the text and link it to the citation with the corresponding last name and year. As mentioned above, when using a Citation Style 1 template, the parameter |ref=harv must be added, but this is unnecessary for {{Citation}}. When using parenthetical references, the plain {{Harv}} template is used, which automatically inserts parentheses. Other variations format the page number or parentheses differently.
  4. Use the {{sfn}} template for the whole of the footnote. The {{sfn}} template creates its own named <ref>...</ref> tags: {{sfn|Pereira|2006|p=25}} is exactly equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>[[#CITEREFPereira2006|Pereira 2006]], p. 25.</ref> which is itself equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>{{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}</ref>.


See also WP:Footnotes and விக்கிப்பீடியா:மேற்கோள் சுட்டுதல் for general information, and WP:CITEX for specific examples of exactly how to write the code for various combinations of the above styles.

Discussing citations on talk pages[தொகு]

For convenience when citations are brought to talk pages, noticeboards and other discussions, follow the group of citations with {{Reflist-talk}}.

{{Reflist-talk}}

This template places the citations in their own box under the bold header References. The resulting reference box does not appear in the table of contents.

See also[தொகு]

Notes[தொகு]

  1. In contrast to parenthetical referencing or shortened footnotes, citations using the footnote system don't require wikilinks of course, as the inline citations in this method simply appear as numbers within the text, linking to a list of full citations (and notes) at the end of the article (like this).
  2. Notes on {{cite comic}}:
    • This template allows for a cartoonist field to be used instead of the individual fields if there is a sole creator, as in Bone, or an artist field if the penciller and inker is the same person.
    • The style of this template is based on Allen Ellis' Comic Art in Scholarly Writing: A Citation Guide, 1999.
    • See the talk page for more details and field explanations.
  3. Notes on {{comic strip reference}}