மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூதம்

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மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூதம் (ஆங்கிலம்:Messianic Judaism, மெசியானிக் யூடயிசம்) என்பது ஒரு 1960 மற்றம் 1950களில் உருவாகிய சமய இணைப்பு[1] இயக்கமாகும்.[9] இது நற்செய்தி அறிவிப்பு கிறிஸ்தவ இறையியலுடன் யூத நடைமுறை மற்றும் சொல்லியல் மூலங்களை ஒன்றிணைக்கிறது.[14] மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூதமானது இயேசு யூதரின் மெசியா மற்றும் மகனாகிய கடவுள் (திரித்துவம்) ஆகிய இரண்டையும் கருத்துக்களையும் பொதுவாகக் கொண்டுள்ளது.[18] ஆயினும், சிலர் திரித்துவம் பற்றிய நம்பிக்கைகளை ஏற்றுக் கொள்வதில்லை.[19] சில மறுப்புக்களுடன், தனாக் மற்றும் புதிய ஏற்பாடு என்பன அதிகாரபூர்வமானதும் தெய்வத்தன்மையான தூண்டுதலுக்குள்ளான வேதப்புத்தகம் என நம்பப்படுகின்றது.

இயேசுவை ஒரே கடவுளின் மீட்பராக ஏற்றுக் கொள்வதனூடாக மீட்பினை அடைய முடியும் என்று அநேக மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூதம் அமைப்புக்கள் கருதுகின்றன.[20] இது இயேசுவின் மரணம், உயிர்ப்பு ஊடாக சகல பாவங்களுக்கான பரிகாரம் கிடைத்துவிட்டது என நம்புகின்றது. யூத சட்டம் அல்லது நடத்தைப் பழக்கங்களிளைப் பின்பற்றுவது கலாச்சார விடயமே, அதனூடாக மீட்பினை அடைய முடியாது[10] மெசியத்துவத்திலும் இயேசுவின் தெய்வீகத்திலும் நம்பிக்கை என்ற மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூதத்தின் பொதுக் கருத்தானது பல கிறிஸ்தவ பிரிவுகளினதும் கருத்தாகவும்[21] யூதச் சமய இயக்கங்களினால் கிறிஸ்தவத்திற்கும் யூதத்திற்கும் இடையேயான வேற்றுமையாகவும் பார்க்கப்படுகின்றது.[22][28] பிரதான கிறிஸ்தவ குழுக்கள் மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூதத்தை கிறிஸ்தவத்தின் ஒரு வடிவமாகவே ஏற்றுக் கொள்கின்றன.[21]

மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூதத்தைக் கடைப்பிடிப்பவர்களில் சிலர் இன அடிப்படையில் யூதர்கள்.[2][21] பலர் இது யூதத்தின் ஒரு பகுதி என வாதிடுகின்றனர்[29] யூத அமைப்புக்களும் இசுரேலிய உயர் நீதிமன்றமும் இதனை மறுத்து, கிறிஸதவத்தின் ஓர் வடிவமாகவே கருதுகின்றது.[22][30] 2003 முதல் 2007 வரை, அமெரிக்காவில் 150 மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூத வழிபாட்டு இல்லங்கள் பெருகி 438 ஆகவும், இசுரேலில் 100 அதிகமாகவும், உலகளவில் பலவாகவும் இவ்வமைப்பு பெருகியுள்ளது. பெரிய மெசியா நம்பிக்கை யூத அமைப்புக்களுடன் சிறியளவு அமைப்புக்கள் சேர்ந்தோ அல்லது அங்கீகரிக்கப்பட்டோ காணப்படுகின்றன.[31][32] இவ்வமைப்பு 6,000க்கும் 15,000க்கும் இடைப்பட்ட அங்கத்தவர்களை இசுரேலிலும்[33] 250,000 அங்கத்தவர்களை அமெரிக்காவிலும் கொண்டுள்ளதாக 2008இல் அறிக்கை வெளியிட்டது.[34]

வரலாறு[தொகு]

19ம் நூற்றாண்டுக்கு முன்[தொகு]

குறிப்புக்கள்[தொகு]

  1. Kessler, Edward (2005). "Messianic Jews". A Dictionary Of Jewish-Christian Relations. கேம்பிரிட்ச், இங்கிலாந்து: கேம்பிறிட்ஜ் பல்கலைக்கழகப் பதிப்பகம். ISBN 978-0-521-82692-1. “[Messianic Judaism's] syncretism confuses Christians and Jews…” 
  2. 2.0 2.1 பிழை காட்டு: செல்லாத <ref> குறிச்சொல்; Feher1998p140 என்னும் பெயரில் உள்ள ref குறிச்சொல்லுக்கு உரையேதும் வழங்கப்படவில்லை
  3. Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". in Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. பக். 191. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-275-98714-5. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:315689134. http://books.google.com/books?id=ClaySHbUEogC&pg=RA1-PA191. "In the late 1960s and 1970s, both Jews and Christians in the United States were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews." 
  4. Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". in Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. பக். 194. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-275-98714-5. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:315689134. http://books.google.com/books?id=oZiScvbS6-cC&pg=RA1-PA194&dq=When+the+term+resurfaced+in+Israel&hl=en&ei=ee9aTLToE8L-8AbUz_WyAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=When%20the%20term%20resurfaced%20in%20Israel&f=false. "The Rise of Messianic Judaism. In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mid-1970s, Jewish converts to Christianity established several congregations at their own initiative. Unlike the previous communities of Jewish Christians, Messianic Jewish congregations were largely independent of control from missionary societies or Christian denominations, even though they still wanted the acceptance of the larger evangelical community." 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8160-5456-5, p. 373. "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews."
  6. James R. Lewis (scholar) (2001). Odd Gods: New Religions & the Cult Controversy. Prometheus Books. பக். 179. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-1-57392-842-7. "The origins of Messianic Judaism date to the 1960s when it began among American Jews who converted to Christianity." 
  7. Dan Cohn-Sherbok (2010). "Modern Jewish Movements". Judaism Today. இலண்டன்; நியூ யோர்க் மாநிலம்: Continuum International Publishing Group. பக். 100. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-8264-2231-6. "In the 1970s a number of American Jewish converts to Christianity, known as Hebrew Christians, were committed to a church-based conception of Hebrew Christianity. Yet, at the same time, there emerged a growing segment of the Hebrew Christian community that sought a more Jewish lifestyle. Eventually, a division emerged between those who wished to identify as Jews and those who sought to pursue Hebrew Christian goals.…In time, the name of the movement was changed to Messianic Judaism." 
  8. Şenay, Bülent. "Messianic Judaism/Jewish Christianity". Overview of World Religions. Division of Religion and Philosophy at the University of Cumbria. பார்த்த நாள் May 14, 2012. "Hebrew Christians are quite happy to be integrated into local Christian churches, but Messianic Jews seek an 'indigenous' expression of theology, worship and lifestyle within the whole church. The latter group emerged in the 1960s when some Christian Jews adopted the name Messianic Jews…"
  9. Please see references:[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
  10. 10.0 10.1 Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". in Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. பக். 191. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-275-98714-5. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:315689134. http://books.google.com/books?id=ClaySHbUEogC&pg=RA1-PA191&dq=While+Christianity+started+in+the+first+century+of+the+Common+Era&hl=en&ei=o-9aTNSsKoL58AbC1tWMAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=While%20Christianity%20started%20in%20the%20first%20century%20of%20the%20Common%20Era&f=false. "While Christianity started in the first century of the Common Era as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained. But in the twentieth century groups of young Jews claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish identity and customs with the Christian faith." 
  11. Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". in Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. பக். 194–195. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-275-98714-5. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:315689134. http://books.google.com/books?id=oZiScvbS6-cC&pg=RA1-PA194&dq=When+the+term+resurfaced+in+Israel&hl=en&ei=ee9aTLToE8L-8AbUz_WyAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=When%20the%20term%20resurfaced%20in%20Israel&f=false. "When the term resurfaced in Israel in the 1940s and 1950s, it designated all Jews who accepted Christianity in its Protestant evangelical form. Missionaries such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term nozrim, "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, an alien, hostile religion. Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews that Christianity was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term, one that did not arouse negative feelings. They chose Meshichyim, Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term nozrim. Meshichyim as a term also had the advantage of emphasizing messianism as a major component of the Christian evangelical belief that the missions and communities of Jewish converts to Christianity propagated. It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that[sic] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews who accepted Jesus as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel have called themselves Hebrew Christians. The term Messianic Judaism was adopted in the United States in the early 1970s by those converts to evangelical Christianity who advocated a more assertive attitude on the part of converts towards their Jewish roots and heritage." 
  12. Dan Cohn-Sherbok (2000). "Messianic Jewish mission". Messianic Judaism. இலண்டன்: Continuum International Publishing Group. பக். 179. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-8264-5458-4. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:42719687. http://books.google.com/books?id=5aOOlWdLpNwC&pg=PA169&dq=%22Messianic+Judaism%22+Christian+Jewish&hl=en&ei=IkthTJaKMMT48Aax_dDaCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Evangelism%20Jewish%20people%20heart%20movement&f=false. பார்த்த நாள்: August 10, 2010. "Evangelism of the Jewish people is thus at the heart of the Messianic movement." 
  13. Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). "Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism" (கூகுள் புத்தகங்கள்). Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. பக். 223. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-8078-4880-7. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:43708450. http://books.google.com/books?id=r3hCgIZB790C&printsec=frontcover&vq=advocated+offspring+rhetoric+Shalom#v=onepage&q=advocated%20offspring%20rhetoric%20Shalom&f=false. பார்த்த நாள்: August 10, 2010. "Messianic Judaism, although it advocated the idea of an independent movement of Jewish converts, remained the offspring of the missionary movement, and the ties would never be broken. The rise of Messianic Judaism was, in many ways, a logical outcome of the ideology and rhetoric of the movement to evangelize the Jews as well as its early sponsorship of various forms of Hebrew Christian expressions. The missions have promoted the message that Jews who had embraced Christianity were not betraying their heritage or even their faith but were actually fulfilling their true Jewish selves by becoming Christians. The missions also promoted the dispensationalist idea that the Church equals the body of the true Christian believers and that Christians were defined by their acceptance of Jesus as their personal Savior and not by their affiliations with specific denominations and particular liturgies or modes of prayer. Missions had been using Jewish symbols in their buildings and literature and called their centers by Hebrew names such as Emanuel or Beth Sar Shalom. Similarly, the missions' publications featured Jewish religious symbols and practices such as the lighting of a menorah. Although missionaries to the Jews were alarmed when they first confronted the more assertive and independent movement of Messianic Judaism, it was they who were responsible for its conception and indirectly for its birth. The ideology, rhetoric, and symbols they had promoted for generations provided the background for the rise of a new movement that missionaries at first rejected as going too far but later accepted and even embraced." 
  14. Please see references:[5][10][11][12][13]
  15. Dan Cohn-Sherbok (2000). "Messianic Jewish theology". Messianic Judaism. இலண்டன்: Continuum International Publishing Group. பக். 170. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-0-8264-5458-4. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:42719687. http://books.google.com/books?id=5aOOlWdLpNwC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=messianic+judaism+trinity+belief&source=bl&ots=WVrxZ1F7nS&sig=lyRnZ7SYuXEahyDZtj89zBKcZqg&hl=en&ei=2P--TK_oF4H-8Aa2vO27Bg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCQQ6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q=messianic%20judaism%20trinity%20belief&f=false. பார்த்த நாள்: August 10, 2010. "Regarding the doctrine of God, Messianic Jews are united in their belief in the Trinity. Despite the use of the Shema in the liturgy, the conviction that God is triune is a central feature of the faith.…For Messianic Jews the concept of the trinity sounds overly Gentile; hence, within Messianic Judaism, a different terminology is used to depict the same divine reality. Nonetheless, the belief God is triune is based on the conviction that Yeshua is God." 
  16. "What are the Standards of the UMJC?". FAQ. Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations (June 2004). பார்த்த நாள் September 13, 2010. "1. We believe that there is one G-d, eternally existent in three persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
    2. We believe in the deity of the L-RD Yeshua, the Messiah, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious and atoning death through His shed blood, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, and in His personal return in power and glory."
  17. "Our Beliefs". மெம்ஃபிஸ், டென்னிசி: B'rit Hadasha Messianic Jewish Synagogue (2005). பார்த்த நாள் October 20, 2010. "WE BELIEVE:…
    *There is one God as declared in the Shema [Deuteronomy 6:4], who is “Echad,” a compound unity, eternally existent in three persons: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit [Isaiah 48:16-17; Ephesians 4:4-6]. *In the Deity of our Lord, Messiah Yeshua, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious atoning death, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, in His personal future return to this earth in power and glory to rule."
  18. Please see references:[15][16][17]
  19. Israel b. Betzalel (2009). "Trinitarianism". JerusalemCouncil.org. பார்த்த நாள் 2009-07-03. "This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from God. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn’t become righteous, he is righteous. He is called God’s Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is “HaShem” who we interact with and not die."
  20. பிழை காட்டு: செல்லாத <ref> குறிச்சொல்; JeC3 என்னும் பெயரில் உள்ள ref குறிச்சொல்லுக்கு உரையேதும் வழங்கப்படவில்லை
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 *Richard Harries, Baron Harries of Pentregarth (August 2003). "Should Christians Try to Convert Jews?". After the evil: Christianity and Judaism in the shadow of the Holocaust. நியூயார்க் நகரம்: ஒக்ஸ்போர்ட் பல்கலைக்கழகப் பதிப்பகம். பக். g. 119. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:0-19-926313-2. "Thirdly, there is Jews for Jesus or, more generally, Messianic Judaism. This is a movement of people often of Jewish background who have come to believe Jesus is the expected Jewish messiah.…They often have congregations independent of other churches and specifically target Jews for conversion to their form of Christianity." 
  22. 22.0 22.1 ;Orthodox
    Simmons, Shraga. "Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus". Aish HaTorah. பார்த்த நாள் July 28, 2010. "Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because:
    1. Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies.
    2. Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah.
    3. Biblical verses "referring" to Jesus are mistranslations.
    4. Jewish belief is based on national revelation."
    Conservative
    Waxman, Jonathan (2006). "Messianic Jews Are Not Jews". United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. மூல முகவரியிலிருந்து June 28, 2006 அன்று பரணிடப்பட்டது. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-02-14. "Hebrew Christian, Jewish Christian, Jew for Jesus, Messianic Jew, Fulfilled Jew. The name may have changed over the course of time, but all of the names reflect the same phenomenon: one who asserts that s/he is straddling the theological fence between Christianity and Judaism, but in truth is firmly on the Christian side.…we must affirm as did the Israeli Supreme Court in the well-known Brother Daniel case that to adopt Christianity is to have crossed the line out of the Jewish community."
    Reform
    "Missionary Impossible". Hebrew Union College (August 9, 1999). பார்த்த நாள் 2007-02-14. "Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus," "Messianic Jews," and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries."
    Reconstructionist/Renewal
    "FAQ's About Jewish Renewal". Aleph.org (2007). பார்த்த நாள் 2007-12-20. "What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that."
  23. பிழை காட்டு: செல்லாத <ref> குறிச்சொல்; OhrSomayach என்னும் பெயரில் உள்ள ref குறிச்சொல்லுக்கு உரையேதும் வழங்கப்படவில்லை
  24. Kaplan, Dana Evan (August 2005). "Introduction". in Dana Evan Kaplan (ed.). The Cambridge companion to American Judaism. Cambridge Companions to Religion. நியூயார்க் நகரம்: கேம்பிறிட்ஜ் பல்கலைக்கழகப் பதிப்பகம். பக். 9. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:0-521-82204-1. "For most American Jews, it is acceptable to blend some degree of foreign spiritual elements with Judaism. The one exception is Christianity, which is perceived to be incompatible with any form of Jewishness.…Messianic Jewish groups are thus seen as antithetical to Judaism and are completely rejected by the majority of Jews." 
  25. "What is HaDerech (Messianic Judaism)?". FAQ. The Jerusalem Council (February 10, 2009). பார்த்த நாள் August 9, 2010.
  26. Drazin, Michael (June 1990). Their Hollow Inheritance: A Comprehensive Refutation of the New Testament and Its Missionaries. நியூ யோர்க் மாநிலம்: Feldheim Publishers. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:978-965-229-070-0. இணையக் கணினி நூலக மையம்:29551513. http://www.drazin.com/index.phtml. பார்த்த நாள்: July 28, 2010. 
  27. Lotker, Michael (May 2004). "It’s More About What is the Messiah than Who is the Messiah". A Christian’s guide to Judaism. நியூயார்க் நகரம்: Paulist Press. பக். g. 35. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:0-8091-4232-5. "It should now be clear to you why Jews have such a problem with ‘Jews for Jesus’ or other presentations of Messianic Judaism. I have no difficulty with Christianity. I even accept those Christians who would want me to convert to Christianity so long as they don't use coercion or duplicity and are willing to listen in good faith to my reasons for being Jewish. I do have a major problem with those Christians who would try to mislead me and other Jews into believing that one can be both Jewish and Christian." 
  28. Please see references:[23][24][25][26][27]
  29. Berman, Daphna (June 10, 2006). "Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus". Haaretz. பார்த்த நாள் August 9, 2010. "In rejecting their petition, Supreme Court Justice Menachem Elon cited their belief in Jesus. ‘In the last two thousand years of history…the Jewish people have decided that messianic Jews do not belong to the Jewish nation…and have no right to force themselves on it,’ he wrote, concluding that ‘those who believe in Jesus, are, in fact Christians.’"
  30. Schoeman, Roy H. (2003). Salvation is from the Jews: the role of Judaism in salvation history from Abraham to the Second Coming. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. பக். 351. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக எண்:0-89870-975-X. "By the mid 1970s, Time magazine placed the number of Messianic Jews in the U.S. at over 50,000; by 1993 this number had grown to 160,000 in the U.S. and about 350,000 worldwide (1989 estimate).…There are currently over 400 Messianic synagogues worldwide, with at least 150 in the U.S." 
  31. Yeoman, Barry (November 15, 2007). "Evangelical movement on the rise". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. மூல முகவரியிலிருந்து May 14, 2012 அன்று பரணிடப்பட்டது. பார்த்த நாள் March 30, 2011.
  32. McGirk, Tim (June 6, 2008). "Israel's Messianic Jews Under Attack". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1812430,00.html. பார்த்த நாள்: August 4, 2010. 
  33. Wagner, Matthew (June 26, 2006). "Messianic Jews to protest 'discrimination'". The Jerusalem Post. மூல முகவரியிலிருந்து 2008 அன்று பரணிடப்பட்டது. பார்த்த நாள் August 9, 2010. "There are an estimated 12,000 Messianic Jews living in Israel, most of whom made aliya under the Law of Return. There are about a quarter of a million Messianic Jews living in the US."

பிழை காட்டு: <ref> tag with name "MJAA Statement of Faith" defined in <references> is not used in prior text.
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