பேச்சு:தமிழர்/தொகுப்பு01

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ஆங்கில கட்டுரை சிறப்பாக உள்ளது. இக் கட்டுரையையும் அதே போல், ஆனால் சில விமர்சன, சீரிய பார்வைகளையும் உள்ளடக்கி விரிவு படுத்தினால் நன்று. இக் கட்டுரைக்கும் ஒரு கூட்டு முயற்சி நன்றாக இருக்கும். --Natkeeran 15:56, 14 செப்டெம்பர் 2005 (UTC)

ஆம். மேலும், செப்டம்பர் 24ம் தேதி ஆங்கில விக்கிபீடியாவில் இச்சிறப்புக் கட்டுரை முதற் பக்கத்தில் வர இருக்கிறது. அன்று, விக்கியிடை இணைப்பினூடே பலர் இக்கட்டுரைக்கு வர வாய்ப்புள்ளது. அதற்கு முன்னர் நாம் இக்கட்டுரையை மேம்படுத்தி சிறப்புக் கட்டுரைத் தகுதிக்கு கொண்டு வந்தால் நல்லது. -- Sundar \பேச்சு 11:31, 15 செப்டெம்பர் 2005 (UTC)
கண்டிப்பாக செய்வோம், சுந்தர்--ரவி (பேச்சு) 11:35, 15 செப்டெம்பர் 2005 (UTC).

தமிழ் கட்டுரையில், தமிழரை பற்றி எழுதிம் போது ஆங்கிலமா; இக்கட்டுரையில், ஆங்கிலத்தை முழுமையாக தவிற்க்க வேண்டும் - விஜய்

பொருளடக்கம்

உபதலைப்புகள்[தொகு]

  • தமிழர் அடையாளம்
  • தமிழர் வரலாறு
  • புவியில் தமிழ் மக்கள் பரம்பல்
  • தமிழர் சமூக அமைப்பு
  • தமிழர் பண்பாடு
  • தமிழர் கலைகல்
  • தமிழர் சமயம்
  • தமிழர் அரசியல்
  • தமிழர் பொருளாதாரம்
  • தமிழர் அமைப்புகள்
  • தமிழ் ஊடகங்கள்

படிமங்கள்[தொகு]

எவரிடமாவது சிலம்பம், சல்லிக்கட்டு, வர்மக்கலை போன்றவற்றைப் பற்றிய காப்புரிமை விலக்கு பெற்ற படிமங்கள் உள்ளதா? செப்டம்பர் 24ம் தேதிக்குள் கிடைத்தால் ஆங்கில விக்கியில் அதுதொடர்புடைய பத்தியில் போட்டு விடலாம். இங்கும் பயன்படுத்திக் கொள்ளலாம்.

மேலும், ஆத்திச்சூடியை ஒலிநாடாவாக யாரேனும் பதிவு செய்தால் en:Tamil language கட்டுரையில் பயன்படுத்தலாம். பல தமிழரல்லாத பயனர்கள் ஆவலுடன் கேட்டுள்ளனர். -- Sundar \பேச்சு 13:02, 15 செப்டெம்பர் 2005 (UTC)


செந் நெறிக்காலம்[தொகு]

செந் நெறிக்காலம் பிற்கால சோழர் (தற்காலம்/Common Era : (த.கா): 9 - 13 நூற்றாண்டுகள்) காலத்தை அல்லவா குறிக்கும். அப்பொழுதே, தமிழரின் அதிகாரம், கலைகள், நுட்பங்கள் உயரிய பலக்கிய மேன்மை பெற்று பின்னர் குன்றியது என்பர்.

தமிழாக்கம்[தொகு]

  • World Tamil Confederation - உலகத்தமிழர் பேரவை?
  • Chieftan - குறுநில மன்னன்? சிற்றரசன் ? (இந்தக் கட்டுரை context படி)

--சிவகுமார் 14:03, 27 செப்டெம்பர் 2005 (UTC)

உலகத்தமிழர் பேரமைப்பு[தொகு]

உலகத்தமிழர் பேரமைப்பில் தமிழ் நாட்டு அரசு மற்றும் இலங்கை அரசுகளின் பங்கு என்ன? தமிழ்க்கொடியை இவ்வரசுகள் அங்கீகரித்து உள்ளனவா? இல்லையெனில், இந்தக் கொடியை பயன்படுத்துவது சரியாக இருக்காத் என்று தோன்றுகிறது--ரவி (பேச்சு) 11:47, 30 செப்டெம்பர் 2005 (UTC)

வாழ்வியல்[தொகு]

தமிழர் தத்துவம்/அடையாளம்[தொகு]

அறிவியல்[தொகு]

தொழிலறிவு[தொகு]

சித்த மருத்துவம்[தொகு]

கணிதம்[தொகு]

உளவியல்/மெஞ்ஞானம்[தொகு]

நவீன தொழில்நுட்பம்[தொகு]

வணிகம்[தொகு]

சமூக அமைப்பு[தொகு]

அரசியல்[தொகு]

உலகமயமாதலில் தமிழர் நிலை[தொகு]


(to be translated)

செந்நெறிக் காலம்[தொகு]

கி.மு. மூன்றாம் நூற்றாண்டிலிருந்து தமிழகத்தினை சேர, சோழ, பாண்டிய மன்னர்கள் ஆண்டு வந்தனர். மேலும் அவர்கள் பலவேறு காலகட்டங்களில் தமிழகத்தின் வெவ்வேறு பகுதிகளை ஆண்டு வந்தனர். In addition, classical literature and contemporary inscriptions also describe a number of vēlīr or smaller chieftains, who collectively ruled over a large part of central தமிழ்நாடு. War between the kings and the chieftains were frequent, as were wars with Sri Lanka, but these appear to have been fought to assert might and demand tribute, rather than to subjugate and annex those territories. The kings and chieftains were patrons of the arts, and a significant volume of literature exists from this period. The literature shows that many of the cultural practices that are considered peculiarly Tamil date back to the classical period.

விவசாயமே இக்காலத்தில் முக்கிய தொழிலாக விளங்கியது. இதனை அக்காலத்தில் ஏற்படுத்தப் பட்ட நீர்ப்பாசன வசதிகளிலிருந்து அறியலாம். (உதாரணத்திற்கு, அக்காலகட்டத்தில் கட்டப்பட்ட கல்லணை இன்றும் பயன்பாட்டில் இருந்து வரும் உலகில் பழமையான அணைகளில் ஒன்றாகும்.). The economy, however, was centred around foreign trade, and there is evidence of significant contact with Europe. Large hoards of Roman coins and evidence of the presence of Roman traders have been discovered at Karur and Arikamedu, and there is evidence that at least two embassies were sent to the Roman Emperor Augustus by Pandya kings. Potsherds with Tamil writing have also been found in excavations on the Red Sea, attesting to the presence of Tamil merchants there (Mahadevan 2003). An anonymous first century traveler's account written in Greek, Periplus Maris Erytraei, describes the ports of the Pandya and Chera kingdoms and the trade with them in substantial detail, and indicates that the chief exports of the Tamils in those days were pepper, malabathrum, pearls, ivory, silk, spikenard, diamonds, sapphires, and tortoiseshell (Casson 1989).

The classical period ended around the 4th century AD with invasions by a northern people referred to as the kaḷvār, who are described as coming from lands to the north of Tamil̲akam and being evil and oppressive rulers. This period, commonly referred to as the dark age of Tamil̲akam, ended with the rise of the imperial Pallava dynasty.

பேரரசுக் காலம் மற்றும் பேரரசுக்கு முந்திய காலம்[தொகு]

முதன்மைக் கட்டுரை: தமிழ் நாட்டு வரலாறு

சிதம்பரத்திலுள்ள ஒரு ஆலய கோபுரம். தமிழ் மன்னர்களின் கலைகளை வளர்ப்பதிலுள்ள ஆர்வம் காரணமாக பல கோயில்களைக் கட்டினர்.

Although the Pallavas are mentioned in records from the 3rd century, they did not rise to prominence as an imperial dynasty until the 6th century. The dynasty does not appear to have been Tamil in origin and, although they rapidly adopted Tamil ways and the Tamil language, Tamil society was transformed during their reign. The Pallavas sought to model themselves on the great northern dynasties such as the Mauryas and Guptas. They therefore transformed the institution of the kingship into an imperial one, and sought for the first time to bring vast amounts of territory under their direct rule. The Pallavas also encouraged the growth of devotional worship centred around Siva and Vishnu, and began the culture of building large, ornate temples with many murals and sculptures. The caste system is thought to have been formalised and institutionalised during this period (Hart 1987).

The Pallava dynasty was overthrown in the 9th century by the resurgent Cholas and Pandyas. The Cholas become dominant in the 10th century and established an empire covering most of southern India and Sri Lanka. The empire was sustained by strong trading links with China and South East Asia. A major and successful naval campaign was conducted against the Srivijaya Empire as a result of trade disputes. Chola power declined in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Pandya dynasty enjoyed a brief period of resurgence thereafter, but repeated Muslim invasions from the 15th century onwards placed a huge strain on the empire's resources, and the dynasty came to an end in the 16th century (Sastri 2002).

எட்டயபுரத்தை ஆன்ட குறுநில மன்னன் எட்டப்பனின் அரண்மனையின் தற்போதைய தோற்றம்

No major empires arose thereafter, and Tamil Nadu was for a while ruled by a number of different Nayaks from the present day Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh regions, and other local chiefs. From the 17th century onwards, European powers began establishing settlements and trading outposts in the region. A number of battles were fought between the British, French and Danish in the 18th century, and by the end of the 18th century most of Tamil Nadu was under British rule.

The western parts of the Tamil lands became increasingly politically distinct from the rest of the Tamil lands after the Chola and Pandya empires lost control over them in the 13th century. They developed their own distinct language and literature which grew increasingly different from Tamil, and evolved into modern Malayalam by the 15th century (Chaitanya 1971).

இலங்கைத் தமிழர்கள்[தொகு]

இலங்கையில் ஒரு தமிழர்

முதன்மைக் கட்டுரை: இலங்கையின் வரலாறு

There is little consensus on the history of the Tamil-speaking parts of Sri Lanka prior to the Chola period. The most radical Sinhalese historians argue that there was no organised Tamil presence in Sri Lanka until the invasions from southern இந்தியா in the 7th century, whereas Tamil historians contend that Tamils are the original inhabitants of the island.

The historical evidence is not conclusive either way. A few poems from the sangam period are attributed to a poet called "Pūtan̲r̲evan̲ār from īl̲am". Il̲am, also spelled Eelam, is an old Tamil name for Sri Lanka, and this is generally used by Tamils as evidence that there were Tamil settlements in Sri Lanka at that time. Sinhalese historians, however, do not accept that and claim that there is no archeological evidence of Tamil settlement in Sri Lanka until much later. Accounts from that period, whilst not offering conclusive evidence either way, demonstrate that Tamils fought wars against the Sinhalese kingdoms and occasionally ruled over parts of Sri Lanka, and served as counsellors to Sri Lankan kings from a fairly early date. It is, however, unclear whether these Tamils came from India or were native to Sri Lanka.

The historical record does, however, establish that the Tamil kingdoms of இந்தியா were closely involved in Sri Lankan affairs from a very early date. Tamil adventurers invaded the island as far back as 75 BC. From the 7th century onwards, the empires of தமிழ்நாடு played a significant role in Sri Lankan politics and there is concrete evidence of Tamil settlements in Sri Lanka in that period. Tamil wars against Sri Lanka culminated in the Chola annexation of the island in the 10th century, which lasted until the latter half of the 11th century.

The decline of Chola power in Sri Lanka was followed by the re-establishment of the Polonnaruwa monarchy in the late 11th century. In 1215, the Arya Chakravarthi dynasty established an independent kingdom in the Jaffna peninsula and parts of northern Sri Lanka. The dynasty ruled over large parts of the northeast of Sri Lanka until 1619, when it was conquered by the Portuguese. The island was then taken by the Dutch, and in 1796 became part of the British Empire.

தற்காலம்[தொகு]

ஏகாதிபத்தியக் காலத்தை சேர்ந்த தமிழ் பிராமணத் தம்பதி ஒன்றின் புகைப்படம்

The British colonists consolidated the Tamil lands in southern India into the Madras Presidency, which was integrated into British India. Similarly, the Tamil parts of Sri Lanka were joined with the other regions of the island in 1802 to form the Ceylon colony. They remained in political union with இந்தியா and Sri Lanka after independence in 1947 and 1948 respectively.

When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising of present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh, northern Kerala, and the southwest coast of Karnataka. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1953 the northern districts formed Andhra Pradesh. Under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Madras State lost its western coastal districts. The Bellary and South Kanara districts were ceded to Mysore state, and Kerala was formed from the Malabar district and the former princely states of Travancore and Cochin. In 1968, Madras State was renamed தமிழ்நாடு.

There was some initial demand for an independent Tamil state following independence. However, the Indian constitution in practice proved to grant significant autonomy to the states. In addition, protests by Tamils in 1963 led to the government adopting a new policy (called the "three language formula") which protects speakers of regional languages against the imposition of Hindi. These have cumulatively led to Tamils in India being largely satisfied with the federal arrangement, and there is little support for secession or independence today.

In Sri Lanka, in contrast, the unitary arrangement led to the slow growth of a feeling amongst Tamils that they were being discriminated against by the Sinhala majority. This resulted in a demand for federalism, which in the 1970s grew into a movement for independence. The situation deteriorated into civil war in the early 1980s. A ceasefire has been in effect since 2002, and a final peace settlement is currently being negotiated.

புலம்பெயர்ந்த தமிழ்ச் சமுதாயங்கள்[தொகு]

Tamil emigration began in the 18th century when many poor Tamils were sent to far-flung parts of the British Empire as bonded labourers, especially Malaya, South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius and the Caribbean. At about the same time, Tamil businessmen also emigrated to other parts of the British Empire, particularly Burma and East Africa. Tamil communities still exist in these countries. The Tamil communities of Singapore, Reunion Island, மலேசியா, and South Africa have retained much of their culture and language. Many Malaysian children attend Tamil schools, and a significant portion of Tamil children in South Africa, Mauritius, Reunion and Singapore are brought up with தமிழ் as their first language. The other Tamil communities no longer speak Tamil, but they still retain a strong Tamil identity.

A large number of Sri Lankan Tamils also emigrated in the 1980s and thereafter to escape the ethnic conflict there, particularly to Australia, Europe, North America, and South-east Asia. Many young Tamil professionals from இந்தியா, particularly computer programmers, have also emigrated to Europe and the USA in recent times in search of better opportunities. These new emigrant communities tend to be better integrated in their host communities than the older ones, and many of them have established cultural associations to protect and promote Tamil culture and the Tamil language in their adopted homes.


இவற்றையும் பார்க்க புவியில் தமிழ் மக்களின் பரம்பல் அட்டவணை

பண்பாடு[தொகு]

காட்சிக் கலைகளும் கட்டிடக்கலையும்[தொகு]

கண்ணன் படம் வரையப்பட்ட தஞ்சாவூர் ஓவியம்

Tamil art displays considerable unity across its three main forms, architecture, sculpture and painting, and is clearly situated within the South Asian artistic tradition. As with other South Asian arts, Tamil art stresses the plasticity and fluidity of forms. Most traditional Tamil art is at least nominally religious, usually centred on இந்து சமயம், although the religious element is often only a means to represent universal - and, occasionally, humanist - themes (Coomaraswamy 1946). The classical artforms continue to be practiced, and therefore represent a living tradition.

ஓவியம்[தொகு]

The most important form of Tamil painting is Tanjore painting which, as the name suggests, originated in Tanjore (now Thanjavur) in the 9th century. The paintings are prepared on a base of cloth coated with zinc oxide, over which the image is painted using dyes and decorated with semi-precious stones and gold or silver thread. A style which was related in origin, but which exhibits significant differences in execution, is used for painting murals on temple walls, the most notable example being the murals on the Mīn̲āṭci temple of Madurai. Tamil painting is in general known for its stylistic elegance, rich colours, and small details.

சிற்பக்கலை[தொகு]

நடராஜர் வெண்கலச் சிலை

Tamil sculpture is usually worked with bronze (using the lost wax technique) or stone (usually associated with temples), and surviving pieces date from the 7th century onwards. Unlike Western art, the material does not influence the form taken by the sculpture; instead, the artist imposes his vision of the form on the material. As a result, one often sees in stone sculptures the sort of flowing forms that would normally be reserved for metal (Sivaram 1994). As with painting, these sculptures show a fine eye for detail, with great care being taken in sculpting minute details of jewellery worn by the subjects of the sculpture. The lines tend to be smooth and flowing, and many pieces capture movement with great skill. The cave sculptures at Mamallapuram are a particularly fine example of the technique, as are the bronzes of the Chola period. A particularly popular motif in the bronzes was the depiction of Siva as Nataraja, in a dance posture with one leg upraised and a fiery circular halo surrounding his entire body.

கட்டடக்கலை[தொகு]

Tamil temples were often treated as being sculptures on a grand scale. The temples are most notable for their high spires, consisting of a number of stepped levels, each with its own minature shrine. These spires tended to be simple and elegant in the earliest temples, and only sparsely adorned with sculpture, but they became progressively more elaborate and ornate, as exemplified by the Brihadīsvara temple of Thanjavur. From the 13th century onwards, the entrance gates to the temples - called gopurams in Tamil - also began to grow bigger and more elaborate. The temples at Chidambaram and Srirangam have particularly impressive gopurams, covered with sculptures and reliefs of various scenes and characters from Hindu mythology (Pillai 1976).

As with Indian art generally, Tamil art does not traditionally aspire to portraiture or realism. Much more emphasis is placed on the representation of ideal prototypes and on depicting the symbols with which the theme of the artistic work is associated. This means that small details, such as the direction which a hand faces, the animals or trees portrayed, or the time of the day depicted, are often of critical importance to understanding the meaning of a work of art.

அவைக்காற்று கலைகள்[தொகு]

The traditional Tamil performative arts have ancient roots. The royal courts and temples have been centres for the performing arts since at least the classical period, and descriptions of performances in classical Tamil literature and the natyashastra, a Sanskrit treatise on the performing arts, indicate a close relationship between the ancient and modern artforms. In common with other Indian traditions, Tamil tradition stresses the unity of the various performative arts, and their symbiotic relationship with the visual arts and literature. The aim of a performance in Tamil tradition is to bring out the rasa - flavour, mood, or feeling - inherent in the text, and its quality is measured by the extent to which it induces the mood in the audience.

தமிழிசை[தொகு]

Tamil shares a classical musical tradition, called carnatic music, with the rest of south India. Carnatic music evolved from the ancient music forms of South India, some of which are recorded in classical Tamil literature, and was influenced by the musical theory of the natyashastra. It is primarily oriented towards vocal music, with instruments either being accompaniments or imitating the role of the singer. Carnatic music is organised around the twin notions of melody types (rāgam) and cyclical rhythm types (thāḷam). Unlike the northern Hindustani music tradition, carnatic music is almost exclusively religious. In sharp contrast with the restrained and intellectual nature of carnatic music, Tamil folk music tends to be much more exuberant. Popular form of Tamil folk-music include the Villuppāṭṭu, a form of music sung with a bow, and the Nāṭṭuppur̲appāṭṭu, folk ballads that convey folklore and folk history.

நடனம்[தொகு]

The dominant classical dance amongst Tamils is bharatanatyam. Bharatanatyam is performative rather than participative. A dance is an exposition of the story contained in a song, and is usually performed by one performer on stage, with an orchestra of drums, a drone and one or more singers backstage. The story is told through a complicated combination of hand-gestures or mudras, facial expressions, and bodily posture. The dance form evolved from a specialised form of temple-dancing, and was only performed in temples until the 1930s. Dancers used to be exclusively female, but the dance now also has several well-known male exponents.

கூத்து[தொகு]

Tamils also have a large number of folk dances. The most celebrated of these is karakāṭṭam. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamma. The dancer bears on his or her head a brass pot filled with uncooked rice, decorated with flowers and surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles and leaps to the rhythm of a song without spilling a grain. Karakāṭṭam is usually performed to a special type of song known as temmanguppāṭṭu or thevar pāṭṭu, a folk song in the mode of a lover speaking to his beloved, to the accompaniment of a nadaswaram and melam. Other Tamil folk dances include mayilāṭṭam, where the dancers tie a string of peacock feathers around their waist, ōyilāttam, danced in a circle waving small pieces of cloth of various colours, poykkāl kuthiraiyaaṭṭam, where the dancers use dummy horses, mān̲āṭṭam, where the dancers imitate the graceful leaping of deer, par̲aiyāṭṭam, a dance to the sound of rhythmical drumbeats, and thīppandāṭṭam, a dance involving play with burning wooden torches. (Sharma 2004).

நாடகம்[தொகு]

Tamil dance is closely intertwined with the Tamil theatrical tradition. Most artforms include a blend of both. The kuravañci is a type of dance-drama, performed by between four and eight women. The drama is opened by a woman playing the part of a female soothsayer of a wandering kurava tribe, who tells the story of a lady pining for her lover. The songs themselves have a lyrical beauty, which is amplified by the performance.

The therukkūthu (which literally means "street play") is a form of village theatre or folk opera. It is traditionally performed in village squares with no sets and very simple props. The performances involves songs and dances, sometimes at the same time, and the stories can be either religious or secular. The performances are not formal, and performers often interact with the audience, mocking them or involving them in the dialogue. Therukkūthu has in recent times been very successfully adapted to convey social messages, such as abstinence and anti-casteism, and information about legal rights, and has spread to other parts of India. The village of Melatur in தமிழ்நாடு has a special type of performance, called the bhagavatamela, in honour of the local deity, which is performed once a year and lasts all night. Tamil Nadu also has a well developed stage theatre tradition, which has been heavily influenced by western theatre. A number of theatrical companies exist, who repertoire includes absurdist, realist and humorous plays.

Both classical and folk performative arts survive in modern Tamil society. The folk arts declined during the middle of the 20th century, but have seen a resurgence in recent years, particularly in southern தமிழ்நாடு, although their popularity continues to be largely confined to rural regions. The Tamil Nadu Folk Arts Society (or "Tamil̲nāṭu iyalisai nāṭaka man̲r̲am") is dedicated to the preservation and promotion of the folkarts, and has played a significant role in the continuance of the tradition.

சமயம்[தொகு]

தமிழர்கள் இறை நம்பிக்கை உடையவர்களாகவே பெரும்பாலும் இருந்து வந்திருக்கின்றார்கள். சங்கத் தமிழர்கள் உலகாயுத போக்கு அல்லது இயற்கை வழிபாட்டையே கொண்டிருந்தனர் என அறிஞர் சிலர் வாதிட்டாலும், தமிழர்கள் முற்காலம் தொட்டே பல்வேறு சமய மரபுகளை அறிந்தும் பின்பற்றியும் வந்து உள்ளார்கள். பெளத்தம், சமணம், இந்து (சைவம், வைணவம், சாக்தம்), இஸ்லாம், கிறிஸ்தவம் ஆகிய பெரும் சமய மரபுகளை தமிழர்கள் பல்வேறு கால கட்டங்களில் வெவ்வேறு போக்குகளுடன் பின்பற்றி வந்துள்ளார்கள். நாயன்மார்கள் மற்றும் ஆழ்வார்களின் பக்தி இயக்கம், வள்ளலார் இராமலிங்க அடிகளை பின்பற்றிய மனிதநேய இயக்கம் ஆகியவை தமிழ் சூழலில் தோன்றி சிறப்புற்றவைதான்.

Most Tamils are Hindus, but Islam and Christianity also have a long history in தமிழ்நாடு. According to popular legend, the last Chera king is said to have converted to Islam and travelled to Arabia to become a companion of Muhammad, and the mother of one of the early Pallava kings is believed to have been Christian. Native Tamil Christianity was entirely replaced by European Christianity during the 16th century, and most Tamil Christians today are either Catholic or Protestant. Jainism was at one time a major religious force in Tamil Nadu, but it declined substantially during the Pallava period, and there are now only a few thousand Tamil Jains.

Tamil Hinduism, like other regional varieties of இந்து சமயம், has many peculiarities. The most popular god is Murugan, who has from a very early date been identified with Karthikeya, the son of Siva, but who may in origin have been a different god (Hart 1979). The worship of Amman or Mariamman, thought to have been derived from an ancient mother goddess is also very common. Kan̲n̲agi, the heroine of the Cilappatikār̲am, is worshipped as Paṭṭin̲i by many Tamils, particularly in Sri Lanka. There are also many temples and devotees of Vishnu, Siva, Ganapathi, and the other common Hindu gods. Kolams, a type of drawing made outside one's house with rice flour, are a typical characteristic of Tamil hinduism. The system of siddha medicine is also associated with Tamil Saivism.

எட்டயபுரத்திலுள்ள வண்டிமலைச்சியம்மன் - வண்டிமலையசாமி கோயில். இதுபோன்ற சிற்றூர்களில் பெரும்பாலும் காவல் தெய்வங்களே பெரும்பாலும் வழிபடப்பட்டு வருகின்றன. இவை இந்து சமயக் கடவுள்களிலிருந்து மாறுபட்டு மக்களோடு மக்களாகக் கருதப்படுபவை.

In addition, the popular religion of rural தமிழ்நாடு has many local gods called aiyyan̲ārs, who are thought to be the spirits of local heroes, who have the power to protect the village against harm. Their worship often centres around naḍukkals, stones erected in memory of heroes who died in battle. This form of worship is mentioned frequently in classical literature and appears to be the survival of an ancient Tamil tradition.


இன்று திருக்குறளை பொது அற மறையாகவும், இறை நம்பிக்கையை ஏற்றும், அனைத்து சமயங்களுக்கும் இடமளிக்கும் பண்பை பேணியும் தமிழர் சமய சிந்தனை, நடைமுறை போக்குகள் அமைகின்றன. அதே வேளை, கடவுள் மறுப்பு (antitheism), நாத்தீகம் (atheism), உலகாயுத கொள்கை, இயற்கை நம்பிக்கை கொண்ட பல தமிழரும் உள்ளார்கள்.

பாதுகாப்புக் கலைகள்[தொகு]

According to Tamil legend, the Chola, Chera and Pandya kings fought a hundred-year war at the beginning of the 1st century, during which they perfected the art of fighting. Four martial arts are believed to have evolved out of this, kalariāṭṭam, cilambāṭṭam, mān̲kombukkalai and varmakkalai, all of which are still practised today in parts of தமிழ்நாடு and Kerala.

Cilambāṭṭam is the art of staff combat, and uses a staff 1.6 metres long. Its techniques were designed to enable a person to use a traveller's walking-staff to defend himself against an attack by several enemies. Its techniques focus on techniques of using the staff without stopping its movement, and synchronising staff, foot and body motion. Varma Kalai is a martial art, which trains people to attack the vital points of an opponent's body with hands or weapons. Mān̲kombukkalai involves fighting with a weapon made from the antlers of a stag tipped with metal. Kalariaṭṭam focus on all aspects of fighting, including unarmed combat, combat with wooden weapons and with metal weapons. The kalariāṭṭam tradition is strongest in Kerala where it is known as kalaripayattu.

செந்நெறிக்காலத்தில் போர் வீரர்களிடம் பிரபலமாய் இருந்த ஏறு தழுவும் விளையாட்டு, இன்றும் தமிழ் நாட்டில் வழக்கத்தில் உள்ளது. மதுரை அருகே உள்ள அலங்காநல்லூரில் ஆண்டுதோறும் பொங்கல் திருநாளை ஒட்டி நடைபெறும் மஞ்சு விரட்டு அல்லது ஜல்லிக்கட்டு விளையாட்டு பிரபலமானதாகும்.

உணவு[தொகு]

உடை[தொகு]

"ஆண்கள் அணியும் சட்டையும் அரைக்கால் அல்லது முழுக்கால் சட்டையும் 18ம் நூற்றாண்டின் நடுப்பகுதிவரை தமிழ்நாட்டில் பெருவாரியான மக்களால் அறியப்படாதவையாகும். ஆங்கிலேயரும் நவாவுப் படையினர் எனப்படும் வடநாட்டு முசுலிம்களும் வந்த பின்னரே உடம்பின் மேற்பகுதியில் 'தைத்த சட்டை' அணியும் வழக்கம் புகுந்தது." [1]

கொண்டாட்டங்கள்[தொகு]

பொங்கல், தமிழ் புத்தாண்டுப் பிறப்பு ஆகியன சமய சார்பற்று அனைத்து தமிழர்களும் கொண்டாடும் விழாக்கள் ஆகும். தைப்பூசமும் தீபாவளியும் இந்து சமயத் தமிழர்கள் கொண்டாடும் முக்கியப் பண்டிகைகள் ஆகும்.


விளையாட்டுக்கள்[தொகு]

தமிழர் விளையாட்டுக்கள்



நிறுவனங்கள்[தொகு]

தமிழரசுகள்[தொகு]

Because Tamils have been spread over several countries for much of their history, there are few formal pan-Tamil institutions. தமிழர்களின் மிக முக்கிய அரசு அமைப்புகளாக விளங்கி வருவன தமிழ் நாடு அரசும் இலங்கை அரசும் ஆகும். இவ்விரு அரசுகளும் 1950கள் முதற்கொண்டு அறிவியல் தொழில் நுட்பக் கலைச் சொல் உருவாக்கத்திலும் அதை பரவலாக்குவதிலும் ஒன்றிணைந்து செயல்பட்டு வருகின்றன.

இயக்கங்கள்[தொகு]

ஈ. வெ. இராமசாமி நாயக்கரால் தோற்றுவிக்கப்பட்ட திராவிட இயக்கம், தமிழ் நாட்டு அரசியலில் முக்கியப் பங்காற்றுகிறது. இவ்வியக்கம் சுய மரியாதையையும் பகுத்தறிவையும் ஊக்குவிக்கவும் சாதிகளுக்கு எதிராகப் போராடவும் தாழ்ந்த சாதியினருக்கு எதிரான ஒடுக்கு முறையை எதிர்க்கவும் தோற்றுவிக்கப்பட்டது. தமிழ் நாட்டில் உள்ள பெரிய அரசியல் கட்சிகளின் கொள்கைகள் யாவும் திராவிட இயக்க கொள்கைகளை பின்பற்றியே உள்ளன. தமிழ் நாட்டு அரசியலில் தேசியக் கட்சிகளின் தாக்கம் குறைவாகவே உள்ளது.

In Sri Lanka, Tamil politics was until the early 1980s dominated by the federalist movements, led by the Federal Party (later the Tamil United Liberation Front). In the 1980s, the political movement was largely succeeded by a violent military campaign conducted by several militant groups. The LTTE emerged as the most important force amongst these groups in the 1990s, and is currently negotiating a final settlement with the government. The LTTE controls parts of Sri Lanka, and has established its own government there, which it calls the government of Tamil Eelam.

பயன்பாட்டில் இல்லாத இணைப்புகள்[தொகு]

தானியங்கி மூலம் செய்த சோதனைகளின் போது இவ்விணைப்புகள் தற்போது பயன்பாட்டில் இல்லையென கண்டறியப்பட்டது. இணைப்புகளின் தற்போதைய நிலையை ஆராய்ந்து வேலை செய்யாவிடில் கட்டுரையில் இருந்து நீக்கிவிடவும்!

--TrengarasuBOT 01:32, 14 மே 2007 (UTC)

BBC about Tamils[தொகு]

Tamils have been called the last surviving classical civilisation on earth.

Inheritors of religious and cultural traditions going back to the Iron Age, the Tamils have a classical literature older and richer than most European countries. Their earliest works date from the third century BC.

In India's tropical deep south, the Tamils have tenaciously maintained the older forms of their civilisation, while at the same time taking on board modernity and globalisation.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/india/gal_india_south_03.shtml

  1. தொ. பரமசிவன். (2001). பண்பாட்டு அசைவுகள். சென்னை: காலச்சுவடு பதிப்பகம்.