பயனர்:தென்காசி சுப்பிரமணியன்/ராம் பிரசாத் பிசுமில்

கட்டற்ற கலைக்களஞ்சியமான விக்கிப்பீடியாவில் இருந்து.
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ராம் பிரசாத் பிசுமில்
பிறப்பு11 சூன் 1897
சாசகான்பூர், உத்திரப்பிரதேசம், இந்தியா
இறப்பு19 டிசம்பர் 1927
கொராக்பூர் சிறை , உத்திரப்பிரதேசம், இந்தியா
அரசியல் இயக்கம்இந்திய விடுதலை இயக்கம்
சமயம்இந்து

ராம் பிரசாத் பிசுமில் (இந்தி: राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल', 11 சூன் 1897 - 19 டிசம்பர் 1927)[1] 1918ல் நடந்த மனிப்பூரி ரயில் கொள்ளை மற்றும் 1926ல் நடந்த ககோரி ரயில் கொள்ளை போன்றவற்றால் அதிகம் அறியப்பட்ட ஒரு இந்திய விடுதலைப் போராளி. அதேபோல் ராம், அகாயத், பிசுமில் போன்ற பெயர்களில் இந்தி மற்றும் உருது மொழிகளில் அறியப்பட்ட ஒரு நாட்டுப்பற்று கவிஞர்.[2] ஆனால் அவர் பிசுமில் என்ற தன் கடைசிப் பெயரிலேயே அதிகம் அறியப்பட்டார். சுவாமி தயானந்த சரசுவதியால் எழுதப்பட்ட சத்யார்த் பிரகாசு என்ற புத்தகத்தால் கவரப்பட்டு ஆர்ய சமாஜ் இயக்கத்தில் இணைந்தார்.[3] அங்கு லாலாகர் தயால் என்பவரிடம் நெருங்கிய தொடர்பு வைத்திருந்தார்.

மேலும் இவர் இந்துசுத்தான் குடியரசு அமைப்பு என்ற புரட்சி இயக்கத்தை ஆரம்பித்தவர்களுள் ஒருவர். பகத் சிங்கால் உருது மற்றும் இந்தி மொழியின் மிகச்சிறந்த கவிஞர் மற்றும் எழுத்தாளர் என்று பாராட்டப்பட்ட இவர்[4] ஆங்கிலப் புத்தகமான காதரின் மற்றும் வங்காளிப் புத்தகமான போல்சேவிகான் கர்தூத் ஆகிய புத்தகங்களை மொழிபெயர்த்தவர். மேலும் பல நாட்டுப்பற்று மிக்க பாடல்களை எழுதிய இவர், தானெழுதிய சர்வரோசி கி தமன்னா என்ற இந்தி பாடலின் மூலம் அதிகம் அறியப்பட்டவர்.[5]

பொருளடக்கம்

இளமைப்பருவம்[தொகு]

பிசுமில் 11 சூன் 1897ல் உத்திரபிரதேச மாநில சாசகான்பூரில் முரலிதர் மற்றும் மூலமதி என்ற தம்பதியருக்கு மகனாகப் பிறந்தார். அடிப்படையில் இவரது பாட்டனார் மத்திய பிரதேச மாநில பார்பாய் நகரை சேர்ந்தவராயினும் பின்பு சாசகான்பூரிற்கு குடிமாறினார்.

பள்ளி வாழ்க்கை[தொகு]

பிசுமிலின் தந்தை பிசுமிலை சாசகான்பூர் உள்ளூர் முதல் நிலைப் பள்ளியில் சேர்த்தார். அங்கே இந்தி மொழியில் வு உச்சரிப்பு ஆந்தையை குறித்தால் பிசுமில் இந்தி மொழி கல்வியை கற்பதற்கு பிடிவாதமாக மறுத்தார்.[6] அதனால் அவர் உருது மொழிப்பள்ளியில் பிசுமிலைச் சேர்த்தார். அங்கே தீய நண்பர்களின் சகவாசத்தால் பிசுமில் காதல்சார் கவிதைகளை படித்ததால் கல்வியில் ஆர்வம் குன்றியது. அதனால் ஏழாம் வகுப்பில் இரு முறை தோல்வி கண்டதால் அவரது தந்தை பிசுமிலை ஆங்கிலப் பளியில் சேர்த்தார். எட்டாம் வகுப்பிற்குப் பிறகு சாசகான்பூர் அரசுப்பள்ளியில் பயின்றார். அங்கே அவரது எழுது பெயரை பிசுமில் என்றே வைத்துக் கொண்டார். நாட்டுப்பற்றுக் கவிதைகளை அதிகம் எழுதிய இவர் அதன் பிறகு ராம் பிரசாத் பிசுமில் என்றே அறியப்பட்டார்.

சுவாமி சோம்தேவுடன் தொடர்பு[தொகு]

இவர் ஒன்பதாம் வகுப்பு படித்துக் கொண்டிருந்த போது பாய் பரமானந்த் என்ற இந்திய விடுதலைப் போராட்ட புரட்சியாளரின் மரண வாக்குமூலத்தைக் கேட்டவுடன் இவரிடம் இருந்த விடுதலை உணர்ச்சி அதிகரித்தது. அக்காலத்தில் பாய் பரமானந்தின் நண்பர் சுவாமி சோம்தேவ் பிசுமில் அடிக்கடி செல்லும் சாசகான்பூர் ஆர்ய சமாஜ் கோயிலில் இருந்தார். அவரிடம் பிசுமில் தானெழுதிய என் பிறப்பு (ஹி மேரா ஜாம்) என்ற புரட்சிக்கவிதையை காண்பித்தார்.[7]

அக்கவிதையில் நாட்டுப்பற்று கருத்துகள் அதிகமாக இருந்ததைப் பார்த்த சோம்தேவ் உனக்கு இது சரிப்பட்டு வராது என்று மறைமுகமாக எச்சரித்தும் பிசுமிலின் விடுதலை உணர்வு குறையாததைக் கண்ட சோம்தேவ் அவரை காங்கிரசு கட்சியில் இணையச் சொன்னார். அதன்படி 1916ல் அவர் காங்கிரசில் இணைந்தார்.

In Lucknow Congress[தொகு]

Next year Bismil left the school and went to Lucknow with his friends. The Liberal group was not prepared to allow Moderate group for any type of welcome of Tilak in the city. Bismil and a senior student of M.A. laid down the car of Tilak and lead the overwhelming procession of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in whole of the city. Bismil was highlighted there and so many youths from all over India became his fans. They organised a group of youths and decided to publish a book in Hindi on the history of American independence, America Ki Swatantrata Ka Itihas, with the consent of Swami Somdev. This book was published with a fictitious name of Babu Harivans Sahai, B.A. and its publisher's name was given as Somdev Siddhgopal Shukla. As soon as the book was published, the then U.P. Government proscribed it to be sold anywhere in the state.[8]

Revolutionary actions in Mainpuri[தொகு]

Bismil formed a revolutionary organization in the name of Matrivedi (en.Altar of Motherland) and contacted Pt. Genda Lal Dixit who was a school teacher at Auraiya. Reference of Dixit was given to him by his mentor Som Dev.

Joint actions[தொகு]

Till then Bismil had collected some weapons also. Som Dev knew that Bismil could be more offensive in his mission if a matured and experienced person supported him. Genda Lal had contacts with some powerful decoits of the state.

He wanted to utilize their power in the armed struggle against the British rulers. Like Bismil, Dixit had also formed an armed organisation of youths called Shivaji Samiti (named after Shivaji). When Bismil told Dixit that his ancestors belonged to the notorious area of Central Province known for bravery, Dixit was happy and he accepted the offer. After that they organised youths of Etawah, Mainpuri, Agra and Shahjahanpur districts of United Province (now Uttar Pradesh) to strengthen the organisation.

Absconded from Delhi Congress[தொகு]

On 28 January 1918 'Bismil' published a pamphlet titled "Deshvasiyon Ke Nam Sandesh" (en.A Message to Countrymen) and distributed it amongst public along with his poem "Mainpuri Ki Pratigya" (en.Vow of Mainpuri).[9] In order to collect funds for the party looting was undertaken on three occasions in 1918. Police searched for them in and around Mainpuri while they were selling the books proscribed by the U.P. Government in the Delhi Congress of 1918. When police found them, Bismil absconded with the books unsold. When he was planning another looting between Delhi and Agra, a police team arrived and firing started from both the sides. Bismil was very cautious: he jumped into the river Yamuna and swam underwater. The police and his companions thought that he had died in the encounter. Dixit was arrested along with his other companions and he was kept in Agra fort from which Dixit fled and lived underground in Delhi. A criminal case was filed against them. It is known as the "Mainpuri Conspiracy" against the British King Emperor. On 1 November 1919 the Judiciary Magistrate of Mainpuri B.S. Chris announced the judgement against all accused and declared Dixit and Bismil as absconders, because they could not be arrested by the police in spite of all efforts.[10]

Underground activities of Bismil[தொகு]

From 1919 to 1920 Bismil remained underground, for sometime in Rampur Jagir/Jahangir village of present Gautam Budh Nagar Distt situated in Greater Noida, sometimes in Kosma village of Mainpuri district, sometimes in Bah and Pinahat of Agra Distt (all in the U.P. state). He also went to his paternal village Barbai in Morena district of M.P. state to take some money from his mother. While living underground he wrote several books: Man Ki Lahar - a collection of poems, Bolshevikon Ki Kartoot - a revolutionary novel, Yogik Sadhan - a booklet of yoga defining how to create a firm resolve in one's mind, and Catherine or Swadhinta Ki Devi - a consigned autobiography of Catherine, the grandmother of the Russian Revolution. Out of these books only Man Ki Lahar was a collection of poems written by 'Bismil' and his contemporary poets, whereas Bolshevikon Ki Kartoot and Yogik Sadhan were translated from Bengali and the Catherine or Swadhinta Ki Devi was fabricated from ஆங்கிலம்.

Translation of Bengali books[தொகு]

The way he wrote these books was not so easy. As he has mentioned in his autobiography, he used to go to the arid land pasture and let the cattle loose to graze. Then he would settle down under a Babul tree with an exercise book and a pencil to translate the Bengali books. After completing some translation he used see if the cattle are grazing peacefully or not. Sometimes when the cattle were not visible nearby Bismil used to recall them with a stick and retrieve them back to the range of his voice command. He would spend most of his time to translate the books and the least to his daily routine for the monotonous meals which he also used to make himself.

Publication of books[தொகு]

He got all these books published through his own resources under Sushilmala - a series of publications except one Yogik Sadhan which was given to a publisher who was absconded and could not be traced out. These books have been discovered by 'Krant' M. L. Verma and are available in the libraries. Catherine or Swadhinta Ki Devi and Yogik Sadhan are compiled and edited in Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna (Vol. 3) whereas Man Ki Lahar and Bolshevikon Ki Kartoot are published separately.[11] Another of Bismil's books, Kranti Geetanjali, was published in 1929 after his death and was proscribed by British Raj in 1931. The Archives of India got this book under their Accession No 961. Now this book has been published in India and is available in the libraries.[12]

Formation of Hindustan Republican Association[தொகு]

In February 1920, when all the prisoners of Mainpuri Conspiracy Case were released under government proclamation, Bismil returned to his native place Shahjahanpur and met the District Authorities. They allowed Bismil to live peacefully after taking an affidavit of undertaking from him declaring therein not to participate in any such revolutionary activity.

Back to home[தொகு]

He joined Bharat Silk Manufacturing Co. as a manager for sometimes and after that started a business of silk sarees in the partnership of Banarsi Lal. Banarsi Lal and Bismil had been associated with the District Congress Committee of Shahjahanpur.[13] Although Bismil earned good money in the business yet he was not satisfied because his earlier commitment to get out British rulers from India was not fulfilled.

In Ahmedabad Congress[தொகு]

In 1921 Bismil attended Ahmedabad Congress along with many volunteers from Shahjahanpur and occupied a place on the dias. A senior congressman Prem Krishna Khanna and revolutionary Ashfaqulla Khan was also with him. Bismil played an active role in the Congress with Maulana Hasrat Mohani and got the most debated proposal of Poorn Swaraj passed in the General Body meeting of Congress. Mohandas K. Gandhi, who was not in the favour of this proposal became quite helpless before the overwhelming demand of youths. It was another victory of Bismil against the Liberal Group of Congress.[14] He returned to Shahjahanpur and mobilised the youths of United Province for non-cooperation with the Government. The people of U.P. were so much influenced by the furious speeches and verses of Bismil that they became hostile against British Raj.

Opposition of Gandhi in Gaya Congress[தொகு]

In February 1922 some agitating farmers were killed in Chauri Chaura by the police. The police station of Chauri Chaura was attacked by the people and 22 policemen were burnt alive. Gandhi, without ascertaining the facts behind this incident,[15] declared an immediate stop the non-cooperation movement without consulting any executive committee member of the Congress. Bismil and his group of youths strongly opposed Gandhi in the Gaya session of Indian National Congress (1922). When Gandhi refused to rescind his decision, its existing president Chittranjan Das resigned and the Indian National Congress was divided into two groups - one liberal and the other for rebellion. In January 1923, the rich[16] group of party formed a new Swaraj Party under the joint leadership of Pt. Moti Lal Nehru and Chittranjan Das, and the youth group formed a revolutionary party under the leadership of Bismil.[17]

Yellow Paper constitution[தொகு]

With the consent of Lala Har Dayal, Bismil went to Allahabad where he drafted the constitution of the party in 1923 with the help of Sachindra Nath Sanyal and another revolutionary of Bengal, Dr. Jadugopal Mukherjee.[18] The basic name and aims of the organisation were typed on a Yellow Paper and later on a subsequent Constitutional Committee Meeting was conducted on 3 October 1924 at Kanpur in U.P. under the Chairmanship of Sachindra Nath Sanyal.

Sharing responsibility[தொகு]

This meeting decided the name of the party would be the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA). After a long discussion from others Bismil was declared there the District Organiser of Shahjahanpur and Chief of Arms Division. An additional responsibility of Provincial Organiser of United Province (Agra and Oudh) was also entrusted to him. Sachindra Nath Sanyal, was anonymously nominated as National Organiser and another senior member Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee, was given the responsibility of Coordinator, Anushilan Samiti. After attending the meeting in Kanpur, both Sanyal and Chatterjee left the U.P. and proceeded to Bengal[19] for further extension of the organisation.

Kakori conspiracy[தொகு]

After arrest of both the senior organiser of HRA total responsibility to run the party had come on the shoulders of Bismil. The District Organisers were demanding money. They were writing very sensitive letters to him: "Pandit Ji! we are dying with hunger, please do something." As a result he was feeling himself guilty for their pitiable condition.

On the way of Irish revolution[தொகு]

He decided to collect money like Irish revolutionaries by stealing from the rich people of society. So he looted the money at Bichpuri in Pilibhit Distt. and at Dwarkapur in Pratapgarh Distt of U.P., but not enough money was received in either of these actions.

These Mauser pistols with wooden stock were used in Kakori train robbery by Ram Prasad Bismil and his other partymen

Action of Kakori[தொகு]

Bismil executed a meticulous plan for looting the government treasury carried in a train at Kakori, near Lucknow in U.P. This historical event happened on August 9, 1925 and is known as the Kakori conspiracy. Only ten revolutionaries stopped the 8 Down Saharanpur-Lucknow passenger train at Kakori - a station just before the Lucknow Railway Junction. German-made Mauser C96 semi-automatic pistols[20] were used in this action. Ashfaqulla Khan, the lieutenant of the HRA Chief Ram Prasad Bismil gave away his Mauser to Manmath Nath Gupta and engaged himself to break open the cash chest. Eagerly watching a new weapon in his hand, Manmath Nath Gupta fired the pistol and incidentally a passenger Ahmed Ali, who got down the train to see his wife in ladies compartment, was killed in this rapid action.[21]

Arrest & filing of criminal case[தொகு]

The incident created a great upheaval in British India. The retribution was severe when more than 40 revolutionaries were arrested from all over India. As per official record of the British Government, a criminal conspiracy case was filed against 28 active members of HRA by the Special Magistrate Ainuddin after a long time. 21 persons were presented before Session Court of Special Judge A. Hamilton on 21 May 1926. Abbas Salim Khan, Banvari Lal Bhargava, Gyan Chattarji and Mohd. Ayuf were the assessors (legal advisers) of the Judge.[22]

Verdict of case[தொகு]

On April 6, 1927 the verdict of court came out of the special court of Lucknow. This special court was established by the then British Government in the Ring Theatre. During the British rule, this Ring Theater was situated in between two important monuments - Kothi Hayat Baksh and Mallika Ahad's palace. This building was used by the Britishers for their entertainment. The English dramas were played and movies were screened. A board was put at the entrance which read "Dogs and Indians not allowed". The famous Kakori trial happened at this Theater. Govind Vallabh Pant, Chandra Bhanu Gupta, Mohan Lal Saxena and Kripa Shankar Hajela fought for the accused viz. Ram Prasad Bismil, Roshan Singh & Ashfaquallah Khan, etc. During the years 1929-1932 this Theater was transformed into the present General Post Office. It is situated on the main Vidhan Sabha Road, opposite to Capital Picture Hall and Christ Church of the main Hazratganj crossing. A stone embedded on the main gate of the GPO dates the buildings as 1929-1932.[23][24] Court's verdict was published in 115 pages and the charges were proved in such a manner that no body could escape the punishment.


Supplementary case decision and appeal in Chief Court[தொகு]

Another supplementary case was filed against Ashfaqulla Khan and Shachindra Nath Bakshi in the court of Special Sessions Judge J.R.W. Bennett. An appeal was filed in the then Chief Court of Oudh (now in U.P.) on 18 July 1927. A very senior advocate Pt. Jagat Narayan Mulla pleaded the case as public prosecutor on behalf of the Government whereas Ram Prasad Bismil defended his case himself. He did not take any help from the Government.

Chief Court's decision and mercy appeal[தொகு]

On 22 August 1927 the Chief Court endorsed the original judgement with an exception of one or two punishments. A mercy appeal was filed in due course before the Provincial Governor of U.P. by the members of legislative council which was dismissed. Bismil wrote a letter to Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya on 9 September 1927 from the Gorakhpur Jail.

Madan Mohan Malviya's joint memorendum[தொகு]

Malviya sent a memorandum to the then Viceroy and Governor General of India Edward Fredrick Lindley Wood with the signatures of 78 Members of Central Legislature, which was also turned down. On 16 September 1927 the final mercy appeal was forwarded to Privy Council at London and to the King Emperor through a famous lawyer of England S.L. Polak[25] but the British Government, who had already decided to hang them, sent their final decision to the India office of Viceroy that all the four condemned prisoners are now to be hanged till death by 19 December 1927 positively.

Final execution[தொகு]

In an 18-month long drawn case, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Thakur Roshan Singh and Rajendra Nath Lahiri were sentenced to death under section 121(A), 120(B), 302 and 396 of Indian Penal Code. Bismil was hanged by the British authorities on 19 December 1927 in the morning at Gorakhpur Jail, Ashfaqulla Khan at the Faizabad Jail and Thakur Roshan Singh at Naini Allahabad Jail whereas fourth Rajendra Nath Lahiri was hanged on 17 December 1927 (two days before the scheduled date) at Gonda Jail; all located in the present Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

End of the play[தொகு]

On 19 December 1927 Bismil woke up at 3.30 a.m. as usual in the morning, did his formal duties of daily routine, meditated for half an hour, bore new dhoti-kurta and sat in the waiting of his long awaited beloved death. At the appropriate time the Magistrate came along with the jailor, unlocked the condemned cell and asked Bismil to get ready. The Magistrate was austonished to see him smiling. Bismil rose up immediately and said - "Let us move!"

Last wish[தொகு]

He went cheerfully up to the gallows saying his last good bye to whomsoever met in the way. He stood up at the altar of gallows, kissed the noose and spoke very loudly his last wish - "I wish the downfall of British Empire!" Then he whispered the vedic prayer "Om vishvaani dev savitur duritaani paraasuv, yad bhadram tann aasuv." (en.O God of all creature! let the ill will be removed and the good prevail in our souls.) and put the noose around his neck like a garland.

The hangman pulled the lever of gallows and the body of Bismil hanged in the open air. For half an hour he was kept hanging to safeguard the certainty of death. In this way a daredevil son of Mother India departed for the common cause of every Indian's freedom.


Dead body's procession[தொகு]

Looking into the huge rush at the main gate of the jail authorities broke open the wall in front of gallows, the dead body was brought out and handed over to his parents Murlidhar and Moolmati. A huge rush of about 1.5 lakhs of people had gathered from all over the country. They took the dead body of their departed brother Ram Prasad and carried it to the bank of Rapti under a grand procession.

Last rites at Rajghat Gorakhpur[தொகு]

The dead body of Bismil was kept at Ghantaghar of Gorakhpur for the last view of the public in the City. From there it was taken to the Rapti river where the last funeral of this great martyr was performed under the proper Vedic Cremation System on the bank of the river. The place, where the ritual obligations of Bismil were done, was named by public as Rajghat.[26] A new Transport Nagar has been developed in the side bye area of this place. A Rajghat police station has also been established there to commemorate the historical place.

Books of Bismil released in his centenary year[தொகு]

Bismil was born in 1897 and was hanged by the cruel British Empire in 1927, thus he lived a very short life of 30 years. Out of this 30 year, he dedicated 11 years of his valuable life in the selfless service of his fellow countrymen to make their life better. He wrote so many books but only 11 books could be published. All of these books were proscribed by the British Raj. Only few of them were kept hidden in the rare and old libraries.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee speaks on the occasion[தொகு]

A freelancer research scholar 'Krant' M.L. Verma tried to bring out these books and the success came to his hands when he could search five books and almost 200 poems written by Bismil. A Delhi-based publisher Praveen Prakashan published the research work in four volumes under a title of Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna. The books of Bismil were released on the eve of Bismil Centenary Year, i.e., 19 December 1996 (since he was martyred on 19 December 1897) by former Prime Minister of India, Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Speaking on the occasion Vajpayee said that we have not done justice with the revolutionaries who had given everything of their life for our betterment. The excessive propagada of non-violence has also spoiled the contribution of revolutionaries in the Indian Independence Movement. If Bismil had not taken the immediate initiative after 1922's Chauri Chaura incident and the Indian Navy had not revolt after Second World War in 1946, the Britishers would have never left India.[27] He described the task of the author as a monumental work.[28]

RSS chief attends the event[தொகு]

Prof. Rajendra Singh alias Rajju Bhaiya the then Sarsanghchalak (en. paramount leader of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh), who has also written the foreword of this book, spoke on the occasion that Bismil was the man who patronised the Aryan race and led the national revolution in freedom movement of India. Reviewing the books of Bismil, Indian journalist Ved Pratap Vaidik said that Urdu poetry of Bismil was parallel to the Ghalib. His literary evaluation requires a serious attention from the critics.[29]

பிசுமிலின் சிலை[தொகு]

சாகித் சுமாரக்சமிதி என்பவர் சாசகான்பூரில் இவருக்கு சிலை அமைத்தார். அது 1994ல் அந்நாளைய உத்திரப் பிரதேச ஆளுநர் மோதிலால் வோராவால் 19 திசம்பர் 1994ல் திறந்து வைக்கப்பட்டது.

இலக்கியங்கள்[தொகு]

பிசுமில் அவர் எழுதிய புரட்சிக் கவிதைகளுக்காக அதிகம் அறியப்படுபவர். அதில், சர்வ ரோசி கி தமனா முக்கிய கவிதை நூலாகும்.[30] as some progressive writers[31]

பிசுமிலின் நூல்கள்[தொகு]

பிசுமில் எழுதிய புத்தகங்களின் விவரம்

  1. சர்வ ரோசி கி தமனா பாகம் 1
  2. சர்வ ரோசி கி தமனா பாகம் 2
  3. சர்வ ரோசி கி தமனா பாகம் 3
  4. சர்வ ரோசி கி தமனா பாகம் 4
  5. கிரந்தி காரி அவுர் உன்கி சயாரி
  6. மன் கி லகார்
  7. போல்சே விகான் கி கர்தூத்
  8. கிரந்தி கீதாஞ்சலி

வாழ்க்கை வரலாற்று நூல்[தொகு]

பிசுமில் அவரின் வாழ்க்கை வரலாற்றை தான் கொரக்பூர் சிறையில் இறப்பதற்கு மூன்று நாள் முன்பு சர்வ ரோசி கீ தமனா என்ற பெயரில் எழுதினார். பிசுமிலின் வாழ்க்கை வரலாறு நூல் 1928ல் கனேசு சங்கர் வித்யார்த்தி என்பவரால் எழுதப்பட்டு அப்போதைய ஐக்கிய மாகாண அரசின் சிஐடி காவல்துறையால் ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்பு செய்யப்பட்டது.[32]. இது தற்போது லக்னவ் சிஐடி தலைமை செயலகத்தில் உள்ளது
[33]

துருக்கி பிசுமில் நகரம்[தொகு]

மூலக்கட்டுரை - பிசுமில் மாவட்டம்

துருக்கி நாட்டிலுள்ள பிசுமில் நகரம்

பிசுமில் காலத்தில் துருக்கியின் முதல் அதிபராக இருந்த கலி முகமத் கேமல் பசா அலியாசு என்பவரை பற்றி பிரபா என்ற இந்தி இதழில் விசயி கேமல் பசா என்ற கட்டுரை எழுதினார்.[34][35] அதை கௌரவப்படுத்தும் விதமாக கேமல் 1936ல் துருக்கி நாட்டில் தியார்பகிர் மாநிலத்தில் ஒரு மாவட்டத்திற்கு பிசுமில் மாவட்டம் என்று பெயர் வைத்து அதன் கீழ் இந்தியாவின் உன்னத போராளி மற்றும் தேசபக்தியுடைய கவிஞர் என்றும் குறிப்பிட்டிருந்தார்[36]

ககோரி நினைவகம்[தொகு]

ககோரி ரயில் கொள்ளையில் பிசுமில், சந்திரசேகர ஆசாத் போன்றவர்கள் பங்கு கொண்டதன் நினைவாக அவர்களுக்கு ககோரியில் ஒரு நினைவகம் உள்ளது.

செவ்வாய் கிரக குழி[தொகு]

ககோரி ரயில் கொள்ளையை அடுத்து அவர்களின் நினைவாக செவ்வாய் கிரக குழி ஒன்றிற்கு ககோரியின் பெயர் 1976ல் வைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. அந்த குழியின் இருப்பிடம் 41°48′S 29°54′W / 41.8°S 29.9°W / -41.8; -29.9.[37]

பிசுமிலின் பாடல்கள்[தொகு]

இந்தியக் கவிஞரான எம். எல். வர்மா பண்டிட் ராம் பிரசாத் பிசுமில் - எழுதுகோள் மற்றும் துப்பாகிப் போராளி என்னும் இலக்கிய கட்டுரையை இந்திய சர்வதேச இசை அரங்கத்தில் 27 பிப்ரவரி 1985ல் வெளியிட்டார். [38][39] தில்லி பல்கலைக்கழகத்தின் நவீன ஐரோப்பிய மொழிதுறை வெளியிட்ட இவ்விலக்கியத்தில் பிசுமில் இயற்றிய 4 பாடல்கள் ஆங்கிலத்தில் வெளியிடப்பட்டன.[40] அவை,

  • டியர் டிசயர்[41] (சர்ஃபரோதி கி தமன்னா)
  • எ மர்டிர்சு மாரல்[42] (சல்வா-இ-சாகீத்)
  • சீக்ரட் ஆஃப் லைஃப்[43] (சிந்தகி கா ராஜ்)
  • லாசுட் வெர்சு ஆஃப் பிசுமில்[44] (பிசுமில் கி ததாப்)

திரைப்படம்[தொகு]

தி செஜன்ட் ஆஃப் பகத்சிங் மற்றும் ரங்தே பசந்தி ஆகிய திரைப்படங்களில் முறையே கனேசு யாதவ் மற்றும் அதுல் குல்கர்ணி ஆகியோர் பிசுமில் கதாப்பாத்திரத்தில் நடித்திருந்தனர். மேலும் பிசுமில் இயற்றிய பாடல்கள் சாகீத் மற்றும் சிலதிரைப்படங்களில் பாடப்பட்டுளது.

மேற்கோள்கள்[தொகு]

  1. http://www.freeindia.org/biographies/freedomfighters/bismil/index.htm
  2. Man Ki Lahar page 88
  3. Man Ki Lahar page 86-87
  4. 'Krant'M.L.Verma/Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna (Part-4)/page113
  5. http://www.flonnet.com/fl2225/stories/20051216001407800.htm. Accessed March 22, 2008.
  6. Man Ki Lahar, page 86
  7. Man Ki Lahar,page 89
  8. 'Krant' M.L.Verma, Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna, Vol-3
  9. Gupta Manmathnath Bhartiya Krantikari Andolan Ka Itihas page 99
  10. Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas, Vol-3, page 621-633
  11. Praveen Prakashan, 4760-61, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, Delhi
  12. 'Krant' M.L.Verma, Kranti Geetanjali, 2006, Delhi Praveen Prakashan ISBN 8177831283
  13. Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma/Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas/Vol-2/Page519
  14. 'Krant'/Man Ki Lahar/page 95
  15. Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma/Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas/Vol-1/Page262
  16. Dr.Vishwamitra Upadhyay Ram Prasad Bismil Ki Aatmkatha N.C.E.R.T. Delhi Page57
  17. 'Krant'M.L.Verma/Kranti Geetanjali/Page90
  18. Dr. Mehrotra N.C. Swatantrata Andolan Mein Shahjahanpur Ka YogdanPage 109 & 146
  19. 'Krant'M.L.Verma/Kranti Geetanjali/Page91
  20. http://world.guns.ru/handguns/hg90-e.htm
  21. Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma/Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas/Vol-1/Page 273
  22. Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma/Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas/Vol-1/Page 283
  23. http://sites.google.com/site/lucknowtravelguide/(Click:GPO,Lucknow
  24. http://sites.google.com/site/lucknowtravelguide/gpo-lucknow
  25. Dr.'Krant'M.L.Verma/Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas/Vol-1/Page 289
  26. Madan Lal Verma 'Krant'/Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna/Vol-1/Page 21
  27. Hindustan (Hindi Dainik) New Delhi 20-12-1996 "क्रान्तिकारियों के साथ हमने न्याय नहीं किया"(Roman:kraantikaariyoM ke saath hamane nyaay nahiiM kiyaa): Vajpayee (en.we have not done justice with the revolutionaries-says Vajpayee)
  28. Dainik Jagraran (Hindi Dainik), Delhi 20 December 1996 "देशवासी महान क्रान्तिकारियों को भूल रहे हैं"(Roman:deshvaasii mahaan kraantikaariyoM ko bhuul rahe hain): Vajpayee
  29. Panchjanya (Hindi Weekly) New Delhi, December 1996 (Last Week Issue)
  30. http://www.flonnet.com/fl2225/stories/20051216001407800.htm.
  31. Article #9 - Progressive Movement and Urdu Poetry
  32. Asha Joshi Introductory page no 22 of the book RAM PRASAD BISMIL RACHANAVALI
  33. [Kakori Ke Shahid (Martyrs of Kakori) confidential Tenth book of Pratap Patra Pushpa (Leaves and Flowers) Series, Pg No 1]
  34. Article of Bismil Vijayee Kemal Pasha 1 November 1922 issue of Prabha p.400-401
  35. (en. Victorious Kemal Pasha) in November 1922. Later too, Bismil appraised Kemal Pasha in his Autobiography[1]
  36. en:Bismil
  37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_craters_on_Mars:_A-L
  38. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2004/20040321/ncr1.htm Dr. Krant gets Fellowship
  39. Dr.A.K.Maurya International Symposium On India & World Literature 1985 Department Of Modern Europeon Languages, University Of Delhi இந்தியா Page 81
  40. Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna (Part-I) page 167-168-169
  41. [2]
  42. [3]
  43. [4]
  44. [5]

மூல நூல்கள்[தொகு]

வெளி இணைப்புகள்[தொகு]

(ஆங்கில மொழியில்)