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'''சைஸ்''' ('''Sais'''), [[கீழ் எகிப்து|கீழ் எகிப்தின்]] [[நைல் நதி]] வடிநிலத்தின் மேற்கே அமைந்த பண்டைய நகரம் ஆகும்.<ref name="WebsterNinthNewCollege">Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. "Saïs." ''[[Webster's Dictionary#The Collegiate Dictionary|Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary]]''. 9th ed. Springfield, MA: [[Merriam-Webster]] Inc., 1985. {{ISBN|0-87779-508-8}}, {{ISBN|0-87779-509-6}} (indexed), and {{ISBN|0-87779-510-X}} (deluxe).</ref> இந்நகரம் [[எகிப்தின் இருபத்தி நான்காம் வம்சம்]] (கிமு 732–720) மற்றும் [[எகிப்தின் இருபத்தி ஆறாம் வம்சம்|இருபத்தாறாம் வம்சத்தவர்களின்]] ([[கிமு]] 664 – கிமு 525) தலைநகரமாக விளங்கியது.<ref name="Shaw">Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, 1995. p.250</ref> Its Ancient Egyptian name was '''Zau'''.
 
 
==Overview==
{{Infobox hieroglyphs
|title = Saisசைஸ்
|name = <hiero>z:G39-G1-G43-O49</hiero>
|name transcription = Sau (Zau) <br /> ''Sȝw''
|Greek = Σάϊς (Sais)
|}}
[[Herodotus]] wrote that Sais is where the grave of [[Osiris]] was located and that the sufferings of the god were displayed as a mystery by night on an adjacent lake.<ref>Herodotus, II, 171.</ref>
 
The city's patron goddess was [[Neith]], whose cult is attested as early as the [[First Dynasty of Egypt]] (c. 3100–3050 BC).<ref name="Shaw"/> The Greeks, such as Herodotus, [[Plato]], and [[Diodorus Siculus]], identified her with [[Athena]] and hence postulated a primordial link to [[Athens]]. Diodorus recounts that Athenians built Sais before the [[flood myth|deluge]]. While all Greek cities were destroyed during that cataclysm, including Athens, Sais and the others Egyptian cities survived.<ref>Diodorus Siculus, [https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_agd-eLVNRMMC ''Historical Library'' "Book V, 57"].</ref>
 
In [[Plato]]'s ''[[Timaeus (dialogue)|Timaeus]]'' and ''[[Critias]]'' (around 395 BC, 200 years after the visit by the Greek legislator Solon), Sais is the city in which [[Solon]] receives the story of [[Atlantis]], its military aggression against Greece and Egypt, its eventual defeat and destruction by gods-punishing catastrophe, from an Egyptian priest. Solon visited Egypt in 590 BC. Plato also notes the city as the birthplace of the [[pharaoh]] [[Amasis II]].<ref>[[Plato]], ''Timaeus''.</ref>
 
[[Plutarch]] said that the shrine of Athena, which he identifies with [[Isis]], in Sais carried the inscription "I am all that hath been, and is, and shall be; and [[Veil of Isis|my veil]] no mortal has hitherto raised."<ref>Plutarch, ''[http://thriceholy.net/Texts/Isis.html Isis and Osiris]''", ch. 9.</ref>
 
[[Hector Berlioz]]' ''[[L'enfance du Christ]]'' ("The Childhood of Christ"), in part Three, has Sais as the setting for the youth of [[Jesus]] until age 10, after his parents leave their homeland to escape the [[Massacre of the Innocents]] by [[Herod the Great]].
 
There are today no surviving traces of this town prior to the Late New Kingdom (c. 1100 BC) due to the extensive destruction of the city by the ''[[Sebakh]]in'' (farmers removing mud brick deposits for use as fertilizer) leaving only a few relief blocks ''in situ''.<ref name="Shaw"/>
 
Though the proposed Sa El Hagar site has little evidence of this city, [[List of obelisks in Rome | Obelisks]] in [[Piazza della Minerva]] and [[Urbino]] Italy are claimed to originate from Sais.
 
==Medical school==
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